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Subject 
Instructor 



Date 



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J. L. Hammett Co., Cambridge and Newark 



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Weaving on Hand Loom 
Revived in New Orleans 



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French Descendants Start Move- 
ment Among Clubs f**» 

NEW ORLEANS, Dec. 29 C^).— The 
vmof two women, descendants of 

i I ° af? on a loom which had beer t used An 
> tv,P family for 100 years before the 

I J MembeS' Council Club of New Orleans 

I I re Se U ciub women have begun a move- 
" me?t to encourage weaving and sale 

1 of the handloom work. 

.'• — • ■ " 



Hooked Rugs for Relief 

To the Editor of The Nation: 

Sir: There are many families in Marion, North Carolina, 
who since the strike have not been able to find work. These 
families are badly in need of food and clothes. With the com- 
ing of winter and the school season the need is increased. 

In order to help buy the things most needed some of the 
strikers are making hooked rugs. We want a market for these 
rugs, and would be very glad to send them to any central 
labor union, any group of people, or any one person who could 
dispose of one or more of them for us. 

Some of the rugs are decorated with scenes from the 
mountains and the surrounding country and are very beautiful. 
Prices range from $3 to $15 according to size. You can gladden 
the hearts of these workers by ordering one or more rugs at 
this time. Correspondence should be addressed to me, Box 634, 
Marion. 

Marion, N. C, December 20 Grace Elliott 



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Largest Hand -weaving Industry xn the World 



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Biltmore Industries/f 
Asheville, N. C. r 

(Grove Park Inn) 



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THE BOMBAY CHRONICLE 



The Talk Of The Takli 



P. R. M. writes in the "Leader*'; 

I am a simple thing and any- 
body can understand my mecha- 
nism. I can be bought for two 
or three pice and even made 
almost without cost. I am 
portable and easily accessible to 
all. I am very light and prettr/; 
therefore I am most popular 
with Ranis and Raises and 
young boys and girls. My pro- 
duction satisfies the religious 
want of the Pandits because I 
am always sacred. I can give 
bread to the millions of starving 
villagers of India, can clothe 
the farmers, can give livelihood 
to beggars, can give a dignified 
profession to the fallen sisters. 
I am in the habit of demolish- 
ing 'devil's workshops' by keep- 
ing busr/ all idle men's minds, if 
they care to turn me. I feed 
the weavers, the carders, the 
blacksmiths, the dyers and the 
carpenters. I can save the 
heavy drain of India that has 
been sapping her very life blood. 
I can affect real unity between 
the different communities of 
India by making them inter- 
dependent. I can ameliorate 
the conditions of the untoucha- 
bles toy making it easy to find a 
market for the yarn produced 
by them. I can establish real 
peace in India by teaching its 
inhabitants self-respect and self- 
reliance and thus render 
it absolutely impossible for 
other nations to come to 
India with the idea of exploit- 
ing her. I can introduce 
simplicity in life and make the 
opulent condescend to talk witk 
the mill hands. I am thus & 
harbinger of peace and restorer 



of financial health to India and 
impartial distributor o; wealth. 

But to students I am something 
more; I am an examiner of their 
abilities, I am a barometer jto 
their nature. Give me to a 
rash boy and I will tell ail at 
once that he is such, because his 
varn will be untwisted and irre- 
gular. Place me in the hands 
of a serious boy; I will at once 
know that he is promising, 
because his yarn will oe regular, 
fine and indicative of a balanced 
hand. I won't fall from his 
hand so often. 

I am not merely an examiner; 
I am an instructor too. I can 
train the minds of boys. I war- 
Han>f a regular spinney can be 
a good mathematician because 
the same law governs both the 
sciences. It would be no ex- 
aggeration to say that spinning 
is practical mathematics. If 
you err, '/our mistake will, at 
once, be detected. 

Just as biuntness in the edge of 
a razor spoils a shave, jrst as 
caustic acid spoils a picture and 
jus\t as adoration without faith 
is meaningless, in the same way 
no amount of coaching is of any 
avail without concentration 
which the youths of these days 
so utterly lack. I am a specia- 
list in training boys in concem- 
tration and I claim to do im- 
mense good in this direction fo 
the boy who befriends me. 

Lastly, I am a political and 
etonomic weapon against a 
bureaucracy, and at the same 
rime I help India in making a 
headway in social reconstruction 
which must proceed the advent 
of political reform. 



Tied-and-Dved Textile Design 



A WOMAN of artistic taste can 
secure delightful results from 
the simple tied - and - dyed 
method of achieving textile design. 
Even sugar and flour sacks or strips 
of cheesecloth become attractive when 
transformed by this process, and finer 
goods may be given an exquisite ap- 
pearance. 

The effects obtained are dependent 
upon the methods used in tying and 
binding and the combination of 
colors. Innumerable ways of tying 
and knotting the materials afford un- 
limited variety for individual expres- 
sion in both design and color effects. 
The simplest method is that of tying 
the material itself in knots at those 



points where a design is wanted. 
Similar indefinite effects are obtained 
by twisting the material quite firmly 
from opposite corners. It may be un- 
twisted and twisted again and dyed 
through as many baths as desired. If 
white material is used and the 
twisted or knotted cloth is dipped in 
light blue dye, for instance, the re- 




Material May Be Twisted and Un- 
twisted Again and Put Through 
as Many Baths as Desired. 



suit will be a blue cloth and a white 
pattern. 

More variety is obtained by tying 
the goods with tape, string or thread 
to bind the portions of the goods on 
which the, design is desired. If the ma- 
terial is bound tightly with two or 
three layers of string, very little dye 
will penetrate it and a clear-cut de- 
sign will be obtained. If the string is 
loosely tied and if fewer windings are 
used, the pattern will be more irregu- 
lar and the edges softer. 

Bands and Borders 

Bands or stripes across the material 
to form borders are secured by gath- 
ering the cloth lengthwise into folds 



and binding them tightly with enough 
turns of string to produce sufficient 
width to the stripe. Bands in groups 
of two or three, varying in width, are 
very interesting, and may be combined 
with a simple motif to form an elabo- 
rate border. 

A wavelike pattern can be used in 
the border design if preferred. After 
the distance between the edge of the 
goods and the beginning of the border 
is determined, rule two horizontal 
lines, using a piece of charcoal to mark 
the lines showing the position of the 
border. The wavy line is then drawn 
with charcoal between the horizontal 
lines. This wavy line is sewed with 
running stitches and all marks of 
charcoal rubbed from the cloth. The 
thread showing the wavy line is then 
drawn straight and securely tied. The 
folds of the goods are adjusted evenly 
and the first tying is wound around 
the cloth, beginning at the sewed wavy 
line and winding above it. A space is 
left, and with no more sewing, a sec- 
ond and narrower band is wound and 
tied. 




Amusing Experiments 

Cycles useful in design are mad 6 
.'.n different ways, the simplest beind 
r o pinch up a bit of the material 
and wind it tightly with fine string. 
Similar loops may also be made over 
marbles, small beads or the end of 
a match or toothpick, each method 
resulting in peculiarities of its own. 
By grouping, a series of intricate 
designs can be made. 

One may find other ways of obtain- 
ing unusual motifs in design. When 
:he material is tied around a clothes- 
pin a most interesting cobweb-like 
design is obtained. Knot tying and 
String tying can be combined in the 
same piece of work, together with a 
I conventional border or design made 
by tying in various small beads or 
I buttons. With a very little practice 
amateur can produce many novel 
knd artistic effects. 

Allover effects are obtained by 
gathering the material lengthwise in 
soft irregular folds and binding it 
rather loosely at intervals. This pro- 
duces the long wavy coloring. Folding 
the cloth in unusual ways and then 
pleating or crushing it in the hand 
and tying it tightly but leaving gaps 
of material between the strands of 
I string will produce unusual patterns. 
' Diagonal pleating is another example 
! of unusual folding and is a good way 
| tr> get simple and beautiful allover 
terns without the time and labor 
spent in tying individual motifs. 

Details of Technique 

A white string, strong but not heavy, 
is best for general tying. Different 
effects may sometimes be secured by 
having different weights of string. 
Certain fabrics need to be tied very 
tightly lest the dye creep in through 
the string and spoil the design. These 
are the loosely-woven fabrics, such as 
cheesecloth and voile and soft chiffons. 
Closely woven cottons do not absorb 
the dye easily, but since they are most 
frequently boiled for the dying process, 
it is well to wrap them very thoroughly, 
with the string. Silk and other ma- 
terials tied for a tepid bath should not 
be tied less tightly, but it is not neces- 
sary to wind them so many times over 
ana over in the same place. 

The heavier the material used, the 

less intricate the design should be, and 

the longer the fabric should stay in 

the dye bath. Loose-meshed materials 

! are most satisfactory when the design 



Bands or Stripes to Form Borders May Be Secured by Folding the Cloth 
and Binding It Tightly With Enough Layers of String to Exclude the Dye. 



»«><*' 




A Wavy Pattern Is Effective In the Border Design. This Undulating Line 
Is Drawn With Charcoal Between Horizontal Lines Marking Off the Po- 
sition and Width of the Border and Is Then Sewed With Running 
Stitches, After Which the Charcoal Is Brushed Completely Off. The 
Wavy Line Is Then Gathered c.nd the Goods Above and Below Is Care- 
fully Adjusted and Bound With String, After Which the Dyeing Take» 
Place. 



is rather vague and obtained by tying 
the material on itself. Before dying 
unbleached muslin, it should be boiled 
as long as convenient and rinsed many 
times to make it soft. After this treat- 
ment it takes the dye very successfully 
and has a beautiful texture. 
Equipment 
Only the simplest of equipment is 
required for this craft. One needs an 
agate or enamel pan large enough to 
hold the articles to be dyed, and a 
stick or two to manipulate the mate- | 
rial in the dye bath. Rubber gloves | 
are essential to avoid staining one's 
hands. 

It is a very simple matter to get 
good dyes. In purchasing them it is 
necessary to consider whether the 
material to be dyed is silk, wool, cot- 
ton or linen, since cotton and linen 
require a different dye from wool and 
silk. The directions on the envelopes 
containing the dyes should be care- 
fully followed in using them. 
, Before going into the dye bath the 
I material must be thoroughly wet 
through, by soaking it in cold water 
lhalf an hour or longer, according to 
jthe texture of the goods. The tem- 
perature of the dye bath has much to 
I do with the success of dyeing. A boil- 
ling dye is used for all cottons and 
i linens. Some colors are much stronger 
than others and require only two or 
three teaspopnfuls to dye a given 
amount of fabric, while others need 
three or four times as much to dye 
the same amount of material. A long 
boiling sets the color and is necessary 
if the articles are to launder well 
thereafter. Constant stirring Is also 
essential. 



Silks may frequently be boiled with- 
out ruining the fabric, but as they 
absorb the dye quickly, it is better 10 
work with them in a dye bath below 
the boiling point so as not to injure 
the tied design. When several colors 
are to be used in the same design only 
that portion which is to receive a 
certain color is immersed. Rinse in 
cold water after dyeing each portion. 
After all unbound portions have been 
colored, the strings are removed. The 
portions which have been colored may 
be tied with enough string to protect 
them, and the portions which re- 
mained uncolored, because they were 
tied during the first dyeing operations, 
may in turn be dipped into various 
colors. In this way several more colors 
may be introduced into the design. 



ti 



We guarantee the MEREDITH CRASH 

to be pure linen made from the best of flax. 

It is thoroughly washed ready for use and 

very ABSORBENT. 

If you like it please recommend it to your 
friends because it is made in New England. 
If your dealer does not carry it send to the 
MEREDITH LINEN MILLS 

MEREDITH, NEW HAMPSHIRE 



US2S& 



.■■■•-.•'•'•..■'■ <i 
■•■■'■•■.''■••"■ 




Tied-and-Dyed Textile Design 



A WOMAN of artistic taste can 
secure delightful results from 
the simple tied - and - dyed 
method of achieving textile design. 
Even sugar and flour sacks or strips 
of cheesecloth become attractive when ■ 
transformed by this process, and finer 
goods may be given an exquisite ap- I 
pearance. j 

The effects obtained are dependent 
upon the methods used in tying and 
binding and the combination of 
colors. Innumerable ways of tying 
and knotting the materials afford un- 
limited variety for individual expres- 
sion in both design and color effects. 
The simplest method is that of tying 
the material itself in knots at those 



suit will be a blue cloth and a white 
pattern. 

More variety is obtained by tying 
the goods with tape, string or thread 
to bind the portions of the goods on 
which the ,design is desired. If the ma- 
terial is bound tightly with two or 
three layers of string, very little dye 
will penetrate it and a clear-cut de- 
sign will be obtained. If the string is 
loosely tied and if fewer windings are 
used, the pattern will be more irregu- 
lar and the edges softer. 

Bands and Borders 

Bands or stripes across the material 
to form borders are secured by gath- 
ering the cloth lengthwise into folds j 



points where a design is wanted. 
Similar indefinite effects are obtained 
by twisting the material quite firmly 
from opposite corners. It may be un- 
twisted and twisted again and dyed 
through as many baths as desired. If 
white material is used and the 
twisted or knotted cloth is dipped in 
light blue dye, for instance, the re- 




Material May Be Twisted and Un- 
twisted Again and Put Through 
as Many Baths as Desired. 



and binding them tightly with enough 
turns of string to produce sufficient 
width to the stripe. Bands in groups 
of two or three, varying in width, are 
very interesting, and may be combined 
with a simple motif to form an elabo- 
rate border. 

A wavelike pattern can be used in 
the border design if preferred. After 
the distance between the edge of the 
goods and the beginning of the border 
is determined, rule two horizontal 
lines, using a piece of charcoal to mark 
the lines showing the position of the 
border. The wavy line is then drawn 
with charcoal between the horizontal 
lines. This wavy line is sewed with 
running stitches and all marks of 
charcoal rubbed from the cloth. The 
thread showing the wavy line is then 
drawn straight and securely tied. The 
folds of the goods are adjusted evenly 
and the first tying is wound around 
the cloth, beginning at the sewed wavy 
line and winding above it. A space is 
left, and with no more sewing, a sec- 
ond and narrower band is wound and 
tied. 




Amusing Experiments 

Cycles useful in design are mac? 
.'.n different ways, the simplest beinu 
to pinch up a bit of the materia'il 
and wind it tightly with fine string. 
Similar loops may also be made over 
marbles, small beads or the end of 
a match or toothpick, each method 
resulting in peculiarities of its own. 
By grouping, a series of intricate 
designs can be made. 

One may find other ways of obtain- 
ing unusual motifs in design. When 
the material is tied around a clothes- 
pin a most interesting cobweb-like 
design is obtained. Knot tying and 
string tying can be combined in the 
same piece of work, together with a 
i conventional border or design made 
i by tying in various small beads or 
; buttons. With a very little practice 
amateur can produce many novel 
knd artistic effects. 

Allover effects are obtained by 

gathering the material lengthwise in 

soft irregular folds and binding it 

rather loosely at intervals. This pro- 

j duces the long wavy coloring. Folding 

: the cloth in unusual ways and then 

pleating or crushing it in the hand 

and tying it tightly but leaving gaps 

of material between the strands of 

i string will produce unusual patterns. 

| Diagonal pleating is another example 

of unusual folding and is a good way 

tr» get simple and beautiful allover 

terns without the time and labor 

spent in tying individual motifs. 

Details of Technique 

A white string, strong but not heavy, 
is best for general tying. Different 
effects may sometimes be secured by 
having different weights of string. 
Certain fabrics need to be tied very 
tightly lest the dye creep in through 
the string and spoil the design. These 
are the loosely-woven fabrics, such as 
cheesecloth and voile and soft chiffons. 
Closely woven cottons do not absorb 
the dye easily, but since they are most 
frequently boiled for the dying process, 
it is well to wrap them very thoroughly, 
with the string. Silk and other ma- 
terials tied for a tepid bath should not 
be tied less tightly, but it is not neces- 
sary to wind them so many times over 
ana over in the same place. 

The heavier the material used, the 

less intricate the design should be, and 

the longer the fabric should stay in 

i the dye bath. Loose-meshed materials 

j are most satisfactory when the design 



Bands or Stripes to Form Borders May Be Secured by Folding the Cloth 
and Binding It Tightly With Enough Layers of String to Exclude the Dye. 



'.;.-':..* 




A Wavy Pattern Is Effective In the Border Design. This Undulating Line 
Is Drawn With Charcoal Between Horizontal Lines Marking Off the Po- 
sition and Width of the Border and Is Then Sewed With Running 
Stitches, After Which the Charcoal Is Brushed Completely Off. The 
Wavy Line Is Then Gathered and the Goods Above and Below Is Care- 
fully Adjusted and Bound With String, After Which the Dyeing Take* 
Place. 



is rather vague and obtained by tying 
the material on itself. Before dying 
unbleached muslin, it should be boiled 
as long as convenient and rinsed many 
times to make it soft. After this treat- 
ment it takes the dye very successfully 
and has a beautiful texture. 
Equipment 

Only the simplest of equipment is 
required for this craft. One needs an 
agate or enamel pan large enough to 
hold the articles to be dyed, and a 
stick or two to manipulate the mate- 
rial in the dye bath. Rubber gloves 
are essential to avoid staining one's 
hands. 

It is a very simple matter to get 
good dyes. In purchasing them it is 
necessary to consider whether the 
material to be dyed is silk, wool, cot- 
ton or linen, since cotton and linen 
require a different dye from wool and 
silk. The directions on the envelopes 
containing the dyes should be care- 
fully followed in using them. 

Before going into the dye bath the 
material must be thoroughly wet 
through, by soaking it in cold water 
half an hour or longer, according to 
the texture of the goods. The tem- 
perature of the dye bath has much to 
do with the success of dyeing. A boil- 
ing dye is used for all cottons and 
linens. Some colors are much stronger 
than others and require only two or 
three teaspopnfuls to dye a given 
amount of fabric, while others need 
three or four times as much to dye 
the same amount of material. A long 
boiling sets the color and is necessary 
if the articles are to launder well 
thereafter. Constant stirring Is also 
essential. 



Silks may frequently be boiled with- 
out ruining the fabric, but as they 
absorb the dye quickly, it is better to 
work with them in a dye bath below 
the boiling point so as not to injure 
the tied design. When several colors 
are to be used in the same design only 
that portion which is to receive a 
certain color is immersed. Rinse in 
cold water after dyeing each portion. 
After all unbound portions have been 
colored, the strings are removed. The 
portions which have been colored may 
be tied with enough string to protect 
them, and the portions which re- 
mained uncolored, because they were 
tied during the first dyeing operations, 
may in turn be dipped into various 
colors. In this way several more colors 
may be introduced into the design. 



I We guarantee the MEREDITH CRASH 

to be pure linen made from the best of flax. 

It is thoroughly washed ready for use and 

very ABSORBENT. 

If you like it please recommend it to your 
friends because it is made in New England. 
If your dealer does not carry it send to the 
MEREDITH LINEN MILLS 

MEREDITH, NEW HAMPSHIRE 




This is Our New Lamb and Cashmere 
Biltmore Handwoven Homespun 

It contains the silky hair of the Pushmina goat from the foot 
of the Himalayas in Kashmir, India, and the wool of sturdy New 
Zealand sheep, with Australian Lamb's wool added to give it 
greater softness. We have not used lamb's wool in the past, 
hut have now yielded to the popular demand for a soft cloth for 
ladies and have been so successful in shrinking it that upon 
sponging, a seven yard length there is usually a drawing up of 
but two inches in the seven yards. 

This is a superb cloth, made of the very finest materials. 
Absolutely fast in colors, 29 to 30 inches wide, $3.25 per yard. 
Strictly hand dyed and handwoven. 

These Blackface Scotches 
at $1.75 per Yard 

We wish to close out all the balance of our stock 
of these Blackface Scotch Homespuns, as we are 
now replacing them with our new Shetland Scotch 
which is about the best weave it is possible to pro- 
duce and contains a large percentage of Shetland 
wool which costs us $1.25 per pound. 

These Blackface Scotches are our regular stock 
just as we have sold for years at $3.20 per yard, and 
are not seconds or damaged in any way. 

We simply have changed our line, and are going 
to give our old customers the advantage of a reduc- 
tion in price on what we have left of Blackface 
Scotch Homespun. 



3 



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Spinning Wheels Used in 
Therapeutic Treatments 

Northwestern U. Medical School 
Finds Pedaling Helps Patients 

CHICAGO, March 3 ( UP ) .—Colonial 
spinning wheels have been taken from 
dusty attic corners for use in a new 
method of rehabilitating crippled per- 
sons developed here. 

The spinning wheels are part of the 
occupational therapy program insti- 
tuted by the Northwestern University 
Medical School for treatment of adults 
and children too young to go to 
school. 

Scientists said they had found the 
spinning wheels, as well as various ap- 
pliances run by pedals, effective in ex- 
ercising muscles damaged by infantile 
paralysis, injuries or other diseases. 

The workshop method is used in 
connection with various amusements 
giving the patient's muscles the de- 
sired amount of exercise. 

¥ ?1 r* 11 .1 ¥¥_1»U T>„^„„* 





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LABRADOR FOLK 
MAKE RUGS WHEN 
FISH DON'T RUN 



/ 

Shops to Open as Outlet for 
Handicraft of Far North- 
ern Missions 



Lady Grenfell's share in the work 
established 38 years ago by her 
husband, Sir Wilfred Grenfell, has 
been the Grenfell Labrador Indus- 
tries, which provide an outlet for 
the handiwork of 2000 women in 
Northern Labrador and Newfound- 
land. Although more given to deeds 
than words and seldom writing for 
publication, in this article she de- 
scribes the significance and scope of 
her great project. 



By LADY GRENFELL 
The story of the industrial depart- 
ment of the International Grenfell 
Association has been one of real 
progress and expansion, geographi- 
cally in the area covered, numerically 
in the numbers employed,. education- 
ally in the constantly rising standard 
of the products, and socially in the 
beneficial effects on many homes scat- 
tered along many miles, where bit by 
bit greater cleanliness and order "and 
better food and clothing have been 
introduced. 

One of the many attractions offered 
by Labrador and its people is the 
many foci which the problem presents. 
There are drawbacks like the climate 
and the polar current, and what some 
would regard as a plethora of snow 
and ice for an undue proportion of the 
year. There are the difficulties of a 

!)opulation scattered in little villages 
trung along a stormy coast line, with 
nfrequent communication by fort- 
nightly mail steamers in summer — 
while in winter the isolation and the 
difficulties of. transportation are inten- 
sified by the frozen sea, and a land 
without roads, or railroads, or motor- 
cars or airplanes. All one can count 
on as a highway is the vast blanket 
of snow and ice and the faithful dog 
team. 



The troubles of the North Newfounc 
land and Labrador coasts are due t 
ignorance and poverty, and not to 
lack of character in its people— a fac 
which makes efforts on behalf of thes 
1 fine Anglo-Saxon fishermen all th 
jmore appealing. Their great need, an< 
their great desire for themselves, i 
not charity but work— remunerative 
labor, the fruits of which will enabl 
them to buy needed food and cloth 
ing. 

It was this challenge to find sucr 
work for our fellow Anglo-Saxons that 
30 years ago led to the beginning ol 
the Industrial Department. To create 
a nation of paupers or beggars would 
have been a disaster; so from the be- 
ginning the rule was laid down and 
strictly adhered to that this food and 
clothing must be earned by work of 
some kind, and not doled out to the 
people, except in cases of extreme 
poverty and immediate need. 

The lives of the women of the 
Labrador and North Newfoundland 
coasts a generation ago were partic- 
ularly drab. The lives of the men, 
whose summer days are spent on the 
sea, and whose winter days are passed 
in the forest trapping or cutting wood, 
presented more variety and greater 
possibilities. Thus from the beginning 
the work of the Industrial Depart- 
ment was primarily designed for the 
women. 

Fortunately there existed the native 
jindustry of rug hooking, to which the 

women were accustomed from earliest 
childhood, and at which all of them 
were proficient, or at least potentially 
so. The Devonshire and Cornish and 
Scotch ancestors of these fisher-folk 
of Newfoundland and Labrador mus 
have brought this industry with then 
I from old England at the same time 
| that it migrated to New England. And 
today the women of these coasts have 
the distinction of producing the finest 
| hooked rugs in the world. The work is 
so delicate that it resembles needle 
point, and it is often difficult to con- 
vince people that it is done with the 
homely mat hook. 

Sir Wilfred Grenfell himself de- 
signed various patterns for the rugs — 
scenes familiar to the life of the 
country— and the mat hookers re- 
sponded by a keen interest in these 
pictured representations of everyday 
creatures and activities such as dog 
teams running over the show, through 
the forest or under the full moon, 
polar bears standing on pans of ice 
and gazing at brother polar bears, 
flights of geese over the northern 
spruce trees, lynxes gazing up at su- 
percilious crows, rabbits running 
through the green wood, the Labrador 
eeese in their native marshes. 



M 
■areas 









The roster of craftsmen, announced by 
Miss Browne, is as follows: Crafts del 
Navajo, Coolidge, New Mexico; W. I. 
Cowlishaw, 40 Lincoln street, Boston, 
pewter; Mrs. Miriam B. Pearce, Hillside 
Studio, 185 Newtonville avenue, Newton, 
dyeing leather; Mrs. Bessie T. Cram, 175 
Prospect street, Cambridge, applying gold 
on leather by her own process and 
illuminating leather; Moustapha Avigdor 
(Avigdor Galleries), 120 Newbury street, 
repairing Oriental rugs with a native 
weaver; Woodcarver's Association, Bos- 
ton, Egar Keen and I. Kirchmayer; the 
Caproni Galleries, 1920 Washington 
street, Boston, plaster; the Pegleggers of 
66 Mt. Vernon street; Mrs. Hazel Blake 
French, Jarves street, Sandwich, Mass., 
silversmith and worker in Sandwich 
glass jewelry; Paul Revere Pottery, 80 
Nottinghall road, Brighton; the Crafts- 
men's Guild, 15 Fayette street, Boston, 
needlework and embroideries; Miss Grace 
H. Stratton, 10 Museum road, Boston, 
'cross stitch embroideries; Franklin 
Porter, Dan vers, Mass., silversmith in 
church plate; Edward R. Oakes, 44 Brom- 
fleld street, Boston, master craftsman in 
precious metals who will have a display 
from New York; Miss Doris Burdick, 16 
Park avenue, Maiden, silhouettes; Peter 
Manzoni, 266 Maverick street, East Bos- 
ton, metal work; Mrs. Katherine Osborne, 
81 St. Stephen street, Boston, bookbind- ? 
ing in the Chinese manner; Whiting Milk | 
Company, Boston, a typical New England < 
farmyard scene and making butter; H. / 
Wright Goodhue, 301 Congress street, J 
Boston, stained glass; Mrs. Sally White, •' 
86 Phillips street, Boston stagecraft; j 
Emile Bernat & Son, 99 Buckford street, • 
Jamaica Plain, restoration of tapestry;! 
Weaver's Guild, Dedham; Miss Irene ] 
Mann Tilden, 921 Nantasket avenue, 
Allerton, bookbinding; Tolman University 
Press, Cambridge, making Christmas 
cards on an old hand press; Tileston and 
Hollingsworth Company, 213 Congress 
street, Boston paper making by hand 
with old molds that came from England 
Elizabeth Cynthia Fiske Looms, Isle L 
Motte, Vermont, weaving; Industrial 
School for Crippled and Deformed Chil- 
dren, 241 St. Botolph street, embroidery 
and monogramming; Disabled ex-Service- 
men's Exchange, 355 Boylston street, 
batiks; International Grenfell Association; 
Dove and Distaff, Peacedale, R. I., hand 
made baskets and Persian rugs. 




th I 

lof 



(Photo by Geo. Dixon) 

Miss Ann Peterson 



Miss Little to Be 
Married Next Month 

Miss Barbara 1^, whose engage 

Mment to Lieutenant Thomas Himkle 

• Sabbins Jr U. S. N., was announced t* 

1 ^ekTa/oV'has returned from Wa**nj 

ton where she has lived for the P««JJ 

yea». to prepare for ^wedding whi 

is to take place on >^ . 19. in ^ tea " 

in December, as at first planned^Ual 

the immediate families imt^ 



Than the toy industry. This time tne 
dog teams and other animals were cut 
from wood and painted from nature. 
And finally, in an attempt to utilize 
the local resources of the coast, the 
ivory industry was started, using 
walrus tusks and whale teeth. Many 
today look upon its products as the 
most interesting and beautiful which 
Labrador has to offer. 

Gradually these denizens of the 
North— the dog team, the bears, the 
birds, the arctic hares, whether 
hooked in rugs or carved in wood or 
ivory, or painted on the lids of tin 
boxes— began voyaging further and 
further afield to the United States, 
Canada and England. They consti- 
tuted a kind of sub-Polar migration 
jmd wherever they went they were 
Welcomed, in the beginning because 
pf the sympathy of other Anglo-Sax- 
ons for the self-respecting efforts of 
fcheir cousins in the North, but later 
more for their own merits and intrin- 
sic interest. 

J There are today, on the books of 
ttie Industrial Department, nearly two 
thousand women, most of whom are 
nat hookers, although quite a reason- 
ible proportion of the girls are doing 
weaving. The toy making and ivory 
pork is carried on mostly by disabled 
nen and boys. 

^Great care is always taken not 
o offer full-time work to men who 

ire able to fish and trap. The at- 
tempt of the Grenfell Association is 
tfways to keep men at work on the 
iatural industries of the country and 
fcnder the ordinary conditions of the 
Ife of the coast. 

'The problem today is not one of 
ffoduction, but of sales. To meet this 
teed, we have had to take the tre- 
pendous venture of opening two 
pops, one at 425 Madison Avenue 
few York, and the other at 1631 
x>cust Street, Philadelphia. 



<■.*. « « %»*»■- 



*,/**! 



SMALL 



WEAVING! 



MILLS DESIRABLE 



[Prom the Fall River Herald News] 



Additions to small plants engaged in 
weaving cotton goods, cotton and silk 
goods, and silk goods in Fall River have 
lately been announced. These industries 
are taking space vacated by the coarse 
cotton goods machinery, and while the 
operations of each are limited, these 
small enterprises are a material contribu- 
tion to the city's industries in the aggre- 
gate. 

Mainly engaged in the weaving of spe- 
cialties, the promoters are able to find a 
market for their production even at a 
time when the demand for staple prod- 
ucts of similar materials is light. Al- 
though the beginnings are modest in pro- 
portions, the enterprises have a chance 
to develop the soundest kind of growth, 
that which comes from the normal and 
steady expansion of their business. 

A feature of this trend to small fac- 
tories is the marked contrast with manu- 
facturing traditions in Fall River. Hither- 
to cotton manufacturing has been done 
in extensive plants. Mills were organ- 
ized on a scale for mass production, and 
changes from the fabric a concern was 
built to weave were costly proceedings. 
When the bottom fell out of the print 
cloth business these big plants and their 
numerous forces of operatives became 
idle and a large section of the commu- 
nity was affected. 

The small unit plan follows the system 
largely maintained in England and in 
the textile district centering on Phila- 
delphia. There is a prospect that ma- 
chinery can be kept in operation more 
steadily on specialties than on plain 

Sze Phnn U * Ctl ° n * f Plants of simi, *r 
can'bp ^ a / eS to , mee t style or novelty 
can be made readily, and certain of tv,« 

?: v xt* ot the s ™ a » «ffl5?i&£; 

sons .h? opsonization. For these rea 
grain jmg-, and promises a diversifv r.e 
Product that will make its own market I 






Anglian Times. ' London : H. K. l^wi*. -_ __ 

PERUVIAN TEXTILES. Examples of the Pre- 
Incaic Period. With a Chronology of Early 
Peruvian Cultures. By Philip Ainsworth 
Means. And an Introduction by Joseph Breck. 
12£X8£, 27 pp. and xxiv. Plates. New York:j 
Metropolitan Museum of Art. $1.50. 

ART 



Check's Corner, Arkansas 



SPECIAL TO THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOB 



^jl^V 



A 



Fayetteville, Ark. | straggler and gave it quarters for the 
STRAY sheep, a spinning wheel, ' night. Next morning she found her- 
an old-time loom, and an enter- self Possessor of two sheep instead of 
prising little grandmother have one - Durin ^ the night a lambjiad 



a quaint little spinning wneel, with 
treads and wheel-handles worn deep 
with long and continuous use. Her 
bedroom, workshop still holds a pic- 
turesque array of quilting frames, an 
old-time loom, snippers and clamps 
and dyeing vessels, unfinished fra~g- 



given rise to one of the quaintest and i been born. The self-elected hostess i men ts of weaving, shoe boxes filled 

tended mother and offspring and ad- with cream-white carding wool, and 
vertised for an owner. But no owner unfinished patch-quilts of intricate 
appeared. Whereupon Mrs. Check re- and fanciful colors and shapings. The 
solved to found her librr.ry with the flock of sheep, all of a common an- 



most successful reading centers in the 
South. 

A free library of more than 3000 
volumes has been established far out 
in the Ozark Hills by Mrs. Ada Check, 
72-year-old housewife and book en- 
thusiast. 

The library at Check's Corner is 
run strictly in accordance with the 
ways of pioneer neighborliness. Its 
door is never locked. The books are 
free to whoever wishes them. Country 
people are at liberty to come at any 
hour of the day, take out whatever 
books they wish, and keep them un- 
til they have finished reading them. 
Not a volume has been stolen dur- 
ing all the history of the project, 
and no more than half a dozen have 
been lost in as many jears. 
They Travel 20 Miles 

To reach the quaint little library, 
one travels for many miles down 
along a winding back country read 
that leads through green-gold hills 
and still, shaded valleys, and up 
winding ravines. 

At the time the library was begun, 
It was declared that every book avail- 
able within a radius of 10 miles might 
easily have been carried under one's 
left arm, but now nearly 400 of the 
library's books are read every month, 
and from distances of 12, 15, or even 
20 miles country people and neigh- 
boring villagers patronize the literary 
oasis. The hamlet of Creek's Corner 
has no resources other than the pic- 
turesque library and an old-style 
country store owned and operated by 
X. S. Check, husband of the librarian. 

Nearly a quarter of a century ago 
Mr. and Mrs. Check organized the 
first community club of their coun- 
tryside, an organization which defi- 
nitely demonstrated the cultural in- 
clinations of the poor and isolated 
hill people. Mrs. Check conceived 
then the idea of a community library, 
but the club was much wanting in 
funds, as were its founders. 
A Stray Visitor 

But one day a means presented it- 
self. It came in the form of a 'stray 
sheep, a bedraggled ewe, which stum- 
bled into the Check premises one 
night, forsaken, mud-splattered and 
half-starved. Grandma Check fed the 



flotsam of a rainy night. 



cestry, still flourishes about the Check 



It happened that in her girlhood , farm. Young lambs play in grassy 
she had learned the art of carding meadows, and matronly ewes stroll 
and spinning wool. So when summer I by the front door, baa-ing wistfully 
came Mr. Check sheared the ewe, and ! for an extra ration of food, a request 
his wife carded the wool, span it into i which is usually granted. 




Mrs. Ada Check, Spinning Wool From Her Herd of She«p for the Benefit 
of Her Public Library. 



thread, and wove a coverlet which she 
sold to the wife of a town banker. 
From that start the holding of sheep 
increased to more than 20 head, which 
gave abundant wool for long winters 
of carding and spinning and weaving. 
Within three years Mrs. Check had 
made and sold more than two dozen 
hand-woven coverlets and at least 50 
handmade patch quilts, and put the 
returns into her community library 
"hope-chest." 

Grandma Check still continues her 
weaving, for she loves both the work 
and the cause. Long-handled' wool 
cards still hang above her mantelpiece 
and in the cool of the back porch sits 



From 200 to 30CO Volumes 

Six years ago, when sufficient funds 
had accrued, Mrs. Check bought the 
furnishings for a one-room library 
and an initial stock of about 200 
worth-while books. Mr. Check put up a 
frame building immediately behind 
his store to house the beginnings. 

The quaint backwoods library has 
grown steadily since that date. More 
than 500 books were contributed I 
gratuitously the first yeari The in- 
flow of contributions has continued 



) increase until now the total holding 
more than 3000 volumes, Books have 
>me in from every state in the Union 
ive four; and from China, Holland, 
test Indies, Hawaii, England and 
ermany. Among the more illustrious 
the donors are Calvin Coolidge, 
varies A. Lindbergh and Mrs. Jack 
mdon. 

Backwoods Good Taste 

Grandma Check has 'done some ! 
reful observing in regard to read- ! 
? tastes. She has found that among 
b hill people, the old folk read a 
sat deal more than do the young, 
d that occasional illiterates may 

tve literary interests which are as- 
nishingly keen. 

Vacancies in the book shelves show 
e reading taste of the backi/oods 
id of almost bookless patrons to be 
:rprisingly high. Dickens, Scott, 
ecrge Eliot, Theodore Roosevelt, 




One of the Most Unusual Libraries in the World, at Check's Corner, Ark. 

ilsworthy, Zane Grey, Henry Van 
rke, Joseph Conrad, Ida M. Tarbell, 
,nry Fielding, Ralph Waldo Emer- 
t Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edna 
jber, and one poet, John Keats, 
>ear to be the authors most sought 

Tie little library has about it an 
i of modest, cool homeliness. Swal- 
es twitter in the abandoned chim- 
y, sleepy bees drone outside the 
adow screens. Grandma Check is 
QUd of her accomplishment. She 
Clares that years add interest to I 
p delight in books and her enthusi- 
m in the project which actually 
rnishes recreation and happiness to 
many fine hill people who might 
lerwise be denied the splendid 
npanionship of books. 




plentifully through the text. 

PIONEER CRAFTS 

HOMESPUN HANDICRAFTS. By 
Ella Shannon Bowles. Illus- 
trated. 251 pp. Philadelphia: J. 
B. Lippvncott Company. $3. 

ALL kinds of handicrafts prac- 
ticed by the women of Colonial 
" America and their descen- 
dants of the young republic are de- 
scribed by Mrs. Bowles in this in- 
teresting and handsomely made 
book. She begins with the making 
of baskets and brooms and the 
braiding of straw bonnets and tells 
about the achievements of this sort 
in various parts of the country. 
The spinning of flax and wool and 
the weaving of cloth, with the pre- 
paratory activities, often made the 
occasion for social merrymaking, 
have her attention through several 
chapters. Knitting, sampler mak- 
ing, embroidery, the making of 
quilts and rugs, netting, lace mak- 
ing, candle dipping, all are con- 
sidered, and there is a chapter on 
"Fine Works" which tells about 
the more frivolous accomplishments 
of the ladies of early times whereby 
they tried to meet their desires for 
the refinements of life. These were 
also called "finger works" and in- 
cluded painting on velvet, making 
small articles of feathers, colored 
wax, seaweed, shells and paper. 
Mrs. Bowles does not attempt to 
elucidate more than casually the 
methods of all these handicrafts, 
but she describes the results and 
keeps going constantly through her 
narrative a picturesque and color- 
ful background of the manners and 
customs of the period that had re- 
lationship with whatever handicraft 
is her theme. She also has brought 
together many scattered facts of 
the history of these handicrafts, 
sometimes going back for them 
even to the days of the Romans. 



The Craft of Belt-Knotting 



Stecial to Tub Christian Science 

THE making of knotted belts is an 
interesting little craft, and re- 
quires no equipment except one's 
fingers, and something firm— as a 
door-knob, or a hook in the wall- 
to tie to. 

For materials, almost any stout 
cord of suitable size will serve. The 
cord should, however, be firm, smooth 
and tightly twisted; a soft cord is 
unsatisfactory. Macrame cord in colors 
is to be had from dealers in supplies 
for handicraft; some of the colored 
twines sold by stationers make good 
belts; but the traditional material is 
ordinary seine-twine which may be 
had in several weights from hard- 
ware dealers. 

The very heavy seine-twines are not 
suitable for belt-making, and the fin- 
est numbers— though they make the 
most beautiful belts of all— are not 
for the beginner. Number nine cord 
is the best for general use. One skein 
of number nine cord will make sev- 
eral belts. 

Besides cord, a buckle will be re- 
quired. Any sort of belt-buckle may 
be used; or one may buy a per- 
fectly satisfactory one for ten cents 
at any harness store. Note the buckle 
at No. 11 on the illustration. 
The Procedure 
The first step in belt-making is to 
measure off a number of strands of 
cord. The number of strands required 
depends on the weight of the material 
used and on the width of the desired 
belt. Sixteen strands of number nine 
seine-twine will make a belt seven- 
eighths of an inch wide. For a wider 
belt, 20, 23 or more strands can be 
used. The number should always be 
a multiple of four. 

The length of the strands required 
depends on the fineness of the ma- 
terial and on the pattern of the pro- 
posed belt. For number nine seine- 
twine, five yards is a good length. For 
a belt of 16 strands measure off eight 
cords 10 yards long; these when 
doubled in the middle will give the 
required "warp." 

One may begin a belt in three ways : 
from the buckle, from the center, or 
from the point of the belt. The worst 



Monitor 

possible way is to begin in the middle, 
the easiest way is to begin at the 
buckle, and the tidiest and most work- 
manlike way is to begin at the point. 
Frem the Point 
Illustration No. 1 shows the steps 
in beginning a belt at the point. Take 
two of the 10-yard strands and attach 
them between two uprights— across 
the back of a chair, for instance — in 
such a way that the middle part of 
the strands comes between the up- 
rights. Now double in the center, one 
of the remaining strands, put the loop 



or by looping them arouna a uutton 
on the clothing. Sailors sometimes 
hold these strands in their teeth. It 
is not actually necessary to hold the 
strands at a stretch. The knot is a 
simple square knot, as will be plain 
from the illustration. 

In beginning a belt from the point, 
the first knot to be tied is the one 
at the exact center. The four middle 
strands of the warp are used. Next 
comes a row of two knots, the eight- 
middle strands being used, the four ; 
middle strands and two in addition , 
on either side. By drawing the new ; 
cords tight the fabric will begin to | 
take the form of a point. The next 
row will consist of three knots and 
the next of four. This last row will 
take in all 16 strands of the belt* 




up behind the 
draw the free 
strand through 
the knot tight. 
Next make a 



foundation strands, 
ends of the new 
the looo and draw 
(Illustrated at "1".) 
half hitch around 



the foundation strands with each of 
the free ends, as a 2. Draw the knot 
as tight as possible. Eafti of the six 
10-yard cords should be tied aroun'i 
the foundation strands in this man- 
ner. The knots when aH tied should be 
pushed close together. 

Now unhitch the foundation strands 
from the uprights, tie a loop of cord 
around the foundation strands be- 
tween the two knots in the center 
and attach this loop to some firm sup- 
port. 

Everything is ready for the actual 
knotting to begin. The knot used for 
belt-making is the so-called "Solo- 
mon kjiot," or "sword-hilt knot." In 
making it four strands are used, the 
ones on each side being tied together 
around two foundation cords, as il- 
lustrated at 3. 

In tying the Solomon knot, some 
belt makers hold the two middle 
strands tight by looping them over a 
wooden hook attached to the waist, 



,' The next row will be of three knots, 
the two outer cords on each margin 
being left loose, and the next row of 
four knots, and so on indefinitely. In 
tying the rows of four, care must be 
taken to tie the margin krvots 
straight across the fabric, leaving the 

| little loops that will be observed 
along the edges. Otherwise the fab- 
ric will be tight along the edges and 
will bag in the middle, an undesirable 
effect. 

At 5 of the illustration is shown 
the point tof a belt with the first eye- 
let. The eyelet is made by omitting 
the middle knot on one of the rd\vs 
of three knots. Three or four eyelets, 
with a number of complete rov/s be- 



tween, should complete the first part 
of the belt. 

Commencing: at the Buckle 

In beginning at the buckle, as at 11 
of the illustration, the double cords 
are attached to the cross-bar by the 
knot shown at illustration 1. The first 
row of Solomon knots is a row of four, 
and of course no eyelets are put in, as 
these belong at the other end of the 
belt. 



For a belt in plain knotting this is A belt be ^ un at the P oint ma y be 

the whole story. There are, however, finished of! in a similar manner, but 

many ways of ornamenting the work, a better way is to finish it off with a 

Ornamentation loo P for tne buckle and a "keeper." 

The simnlpc:*- fnrm of nv M on, Q „f i. Tnis ma y be done > as illustrated at 9, 

ma il\ , k ornament is by bringing the work down to a point, 

made by introducing braided figures, separating the strands and then with j 



as illustrated at 10. This belt is made 



half the strands making a narrow 
strip of knotting at right angles to 




Diagrams of Knotted String Work for Belts. 



-with 24 strands of dark-colored twine. 
Hie braided figures are made by tying 
f i succession of Solomon knots using 
;he same strands till each braid is 
long enough. The braids- are then 
laced together and the work is con- 
tinued in the usual way. Figures made 
of eyelets are placed between the 
braided figures in the belt illustrated. 
The method of tying the braids is 
illustrated at 6. If the tie is made first 
right and then left as in the ordinary 
Solomon knot a flat braid results; if 
all the ties are made either right- 
handed or left-handed a spiral braid 
will be produced. 

The belt represented at 11 of the 
illustration shows a different form of 

>> ornament. The small diamond figures 
are outlined in half-hitch work. The 
manner of making these figures is 
illustrated at 7. The center of the" 
diamond consists of a large Solomon 
knot. 

The elaborate belt at 12 combines 
braided work with a diamond figure 
Similar to that in 11. The bottom of 

, the illustration shows the work just 
before crossing the long braids to form 
the medallion. 

Finishing Off 
A belt begun at the buckle must be 
finished at the point with a row of 
eyelets and an edge made of half- 
hitch work as illustrated at 8. The 
knots must be pulled very tight indeed 
in making this edge, and the ends may 
then be cut off close to the knots by 
using a sharp knife w 



"Willow Craft Weavers of 
Easy Street" at W. E. I. Union 
~ W*>< 

..wiVi r,ng ~ the WGek of A P ril 6-13 the 

Willow Craft Weavers of Easy street " 

whose headquarters is. on Steamboat 

rr£, Nai : tucket ' Wil1 be at the a wom- 

2?« M, U f ^T 1 and Indu strial Union, 
IrotucZLT ^^ WUh the * dutiful 

B J M?S tGly aft , 6r the World War, M. 
B. Melendy was faced with the loss of 
his business and all his property. H 
had a wife and three children £id no 
means of supporting them, but he had 
an irrepressible desire to weave fabrics 
with fc "true colonial feeling," and the 

ssrar a.*- - bi * — * •«£?( 

A graduate of the Philadelphia Textile ' 
school, he had a thorough founding in j 
weaving and design, as well as a know- 1 

etfv £i the J dn< ! S of "am- for a Prop- 
erty balanced piece of cloth. Accord- 
ingly he set out with his wife and ch™ 
dren for their summer home in Nantucket 

fr ^l mmed f l tely besan w ° rk on a loom 
in the woodshed. A small sign informed 
passersby that visitors were welcome 

tn Jl Z g r ° rders were taken immediately 
to keep Mr. and Mrs. Melendy busy for 
several months, then they began to'plan 

did.n t h C T m l- Season - Mrs - Melendy 
aid all the finishing of the work when it 
vvas taken from the loom, as well as ■ 
betag, chief advisor as to color comb" 

it w e frt the end ° f the sec0nd summer 
LooVi „?H CeSSary t0 add other looms. 
t L ° ca ' . s lls wer e taught to weave, and 
fhe finishing of the work such as making: 
oop s on luncheon sets and hemstitching ! 
was given to older women to do in the!?' 



the belt. When this strip is long 
enough, fold the belt back on itself at 
the point A, bring the narrow strip 
around the belt and finish by tying it 
in to the strands left hanging. The 
loop at the end of the belt will hold 
the buckle, v/hich may be taken off at 
pleasure. 

Very charming effects in plain 
knotting may be produced by using 
strands of different colors, as brown, 
black and orange, but great care must 
be taken to keep the colors in their 
relative positions all the way through 
the work. 

Knotted belts, if well made, with the 
knots tied firmly and close together, own hom es. There had never before been ; 



are extremely strong as well as hand 
some. They may be cleaned by wash- 
ing in warm soapsuds, a small brush 
being used if necessary. 



any home industries for residents o 
island; if girls wanted to earn money! 
they we re for d t0 WQrk ag wait y 

So that from this humble beginning has 

^^?; + a l° m , mUnity organization whose 



products are known all 



over the country 



for exquisite workman hip. 
ways will be a cottage industry. 



Parsons, Kansas. April 3 (A.P.)— j. q. I 




C£*^a 




^LcjU W d-JU. 



^^j_ t 



-*V\ 



Is 



'W 



Mrs. J. Randolph Coolidgc Leads a 
New Hampshire Village to Real- 
ize on Its Ancient Crafts 

By C. B. Palmer 

Center Sandwich, N. H. 

PERHAPS the project could sue- 
i ceed only when circumstances 
are as fortuitous as they are in 
Center Sandwich, yet it is so 
simple that it should be widelj 
considered for application in other rura\ 
communities of New England. 

It is housed in the .first building you 
come to entering the village from the 
east and south. The sign on the old 
yellow-brown house tells nearly the whole 
story. It says "Sandwich Home Indus- 
tries" And within are demonstrations 
9 f its workings. On tables, around the 
fireplace, over the old beams and in a 
few show cases there are on view a 
wide variety of native handicrafts. There 
is a variety in each type of work, and 
a variety of types. Every piece has 
been hand-made within the limits of the 
town and each piece is for sale on a co- 
operative basis to this extent, that a ten 
per cent commission for the maintenance 
of the salesroom is deducted from the 
sale; the rest goes to the farmer, car- 
penter, housewife, girl or boy who con- 
tributed the piece. 

There are a few more than seven hun- 
dred people in the town. About 10 per 
cent of them participate in the indus- 
tries In 1929 the sales amounted to 
$5000; in 1930 a little more. Five thou- 
sand dollars sounds like a small gross, 
but the individual return in solid cash 
is a comfortable sum. There are not 
many ways village wives can acquire 
cash. Spare-time earnings as a solo en- 
deavor are seldom gratifying. 

As always, the effort which led to the 
present success centered in the enthusi- 
asm of one person. 

Learning on Coal, Not Gas 

Mrs. J. Randolph Coolidge has lived 
. in Center Sandwich since the death of 
her distinguished husband, and she has 
furthered in many ways their mutual de- 
votion to the town in which they spent 



many summers. Except in the "mud 
season," as she calls the early spring, 
she maintains her home a little outside 
the town. And even now, though the 
Industries have attained a certain mo- 
mentum she has been busy in prepara- 
tion for the opening of the season, which 
lasts through Oct. 12. 

This is its sixth year. Its inception 
was an exhibition of hand-made rugs, 
held under the auspices of the Sandwich 
Historical Society. The interest in them 
was tangible enough to warrant the ap- 
pointment of a committee, and from the 



committee came the otrtline of the plan 
as it now operates. In the society and 
the committee Mr. and Mrs. Coolidge 
wene prime movers. Mrs. Coolidge is 
now chairman of the board of directors 
of the . Industries, and a considerable 
trust fund which was left by Mr. Cool- 
idge is applicable to the needs of this or 
any other activity deemed beneficial to 
the town. 

That fund is one of the special cir- 
cumstances which make for the success 
of the industries, and another fund 
which was left some time ago for the 
establishment of a school is a corollary 
benefit, for the Quimby High School has 
earned distinction by the marked appli- 
cation of its curricula to the needs of 
the town, to the individual pupils. Its 
young principal emphasizes the inten- 
tional limitations rather than the smart 
universality of his. plant, housed in an 
old white house and barn. It is his 
theme that if manual arts, training in 
agricultural and rural vocations is to 
be valuable it must be administered 
with the actualities in mind. So the 



forty girls and boys are taught to do 
many things, but they do them with a 
few tools, just such apparatus as they 
are likely to have when they are run- 
ning homes and farms. Here the ideal 
is the practical, and the kitchen of the 
school is not a bright and shining array 
of nickel and porcelain, but a comfort- 
able outlay of wooden shelves, cupboards, 
hooks and a coal stove, with a stone sink. 
The shops are as simple, and their .prod- 
ucts show they are effective. 

Some of the work is found in the sales- 
rooms of the Industries, and in future 
years the graduates should be one of the 
mainstays. Just now their contributions 
are brightly painted wooden- things — 
doorstops, lawn and garden ornaments, 
sturdy peg-leg benches in three sizes— 
and some iron-work. 

Nowhere in the quiet shop are there 
those quasi-manufactured things which 




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The Memorial Building Which Houses the Industries 



This enterprise at first had no home, 
no treasury, no workers, no business. 
Now it owns a memorial building con- 
sisting- of salesrooms, tea room and 
kitchen. At first there was one ram- 
shackle hand loom in the town. Now 
there are thirteen new ones. 

In the recent years before 1926 a few 
baskets for commercial purposes and an 
occasional hand-made rug 1 were sold. 
Now, through the Industries, the towns- 
people sell hundreds of varied articles of 
their own making; the blacksmith has 
made old-fashioned tongs, fire forks, and- 
irons and fenders; baskets of old, new 
and useful shapes are made of split ash 
carpenters on stormy days make chairs 
benches, stools, small tables, even butter 
fly tables. Here too are sold candle 
sticks; rugs, woven, hooked and braided 
linen luncheon sets, runners, and table 
covers; woolen articles; hand-loomed 



spreads and old-fashioned quilts; needle 
work and small gift articles; jellies, 
pickles, preserves, and cakes, pies, rolls 
and candy made fresh daily. The shop 
is open in summer from the first of Julj 
to the middle of October. During the 
winter the building is used for exhibits 
of designs, and groups of workers meet 
there to learn new ideas and patterns 
and perfect themselves in familiar ones. 
This growth has been brought about 
by an intelligent community; two or 
three rarely endowed leaders; a devoted, 
able, paid manager and an equally ef- 
ficient paid bookkeeper, and several de- 
pendable neighbors who serve in a sales 
rapacity, giving their services. Training 
aiso has led to the results; classes in 
weaving and furniture-making have been 
conducted by teachers from Boston, and 
the high school offers courses in carpen- 
tering, forging, sewing, and other sub- 



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Baskets, Rugs, Quilts, Benches and Iron-Work 



(Photographs by Arnold Belcher)* 



This enterprise has proved its worth 
to the individual craftsman and to the 
community as a whole, and to a host of 
friends who motor into the village as 
strangers and who linger to become ac- 
quainted with its home industries, either 
for their own pleasure or for the sake 
of some community which might also 
renew the early work of its hands and 
so enrich its present life. 

Its success has become exemplary to 
a certain degree. Governor Winant of 
New Hampshire has been interested in 
it as an expression of a movement close 
to his heart. This year he has appointed 
an Arts and Crafts Commission to fur- 
ther such efforts, and he has named 
Mrs. Coolidge its chairman. 



n^jux p 



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D ~~~o- \r~ x> L ^ ^ ^ ex 




Looms Bring New Activity to Mountain Women 



SpSfUL TO THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 

Chicago 

OVER the hills they come. Each 
woman is looking forward to 
bright-colored yarns, new pat- 
terns, lovely woven things to make, 
and the annual visit from a teacher, 
who is her friend. 

These mountain folk in North Caro- 
lina, living in isolated log cabins far 
up on stony slopes, travel many miles 
each summer to Penland, N. C, where 
they learn to weave articles to be 
sold in city shops. Riding on horse- 
back, lumbering along in wagons 
drawn by mules, jiggling in old auto- 
mobiles, or even walking, they come 
to the Seven Day Institute held in 
Morgan Hall— to them an oasis in a 
desert. 

Their friend who travels all the way 
from Chicago just because his heart 
has been touched by the barrenness of 
the lives of the mountaineers, and who 
gives his services cheerfully and free 
of charge, is Edward F. Worst, di- 
rector of manual training in the ele- 
mentary and junior high schools in 
Chicago. 

Equipped with samples of new 

objects which he knew would be 

salable in northern city shops, he 

arrived last summer with fresh ideas 

for the mountain people. A handbag 

made of woven cloth topped with a 

wooden handle was the newest item 

With a few tools the women could 

e the wooden handle and fit it to 

gay-colored cloth of Egyptian 

le and wool woven by their own 

ids. Linen towels in ocean-wave 

terns of two colors, . table mats, 

d1 shawls, luncheon sets, scarves 

d various other pieces were woven 
lovely blues, lavenders, tans, and 
' se, as models for the mountain 
| jrkers. 

Rooted in Tradition 
They are actually reproducing the 

reaving of their ancestors," Mr. 

orst said in an interview. "Many 

ears ago the first settlers who came 

est from Virginia and settled in 
hese mountains were experts at 

eaving. Now these women will often 
bring me old scraps of weaving, pieces 
of old counterpanes, or parts of an 
old wagon seat cover, which they have 
found packed away in the bottom of 
a chest. 

"They want to know how the pat- 
terns were originally made, so I ana- 
lyze them and formulate directions 
which the women can follow. Dating 
back to pre-Revolutionary days, some 
of the patterns carry names like, 
'The Governor's Garden,' 'The 



Queen's Delight,' or 'Bonaparte's 
March.' Even epochs in history are 
suggested by 'Lee's Surrender' and 
'Braddock's Defeat.' A scrap of an old 
linen piece brought in last summer 
had no name, so we called it 'Burn- 
side pattern,' after the name of the 
owner." 

Old-time weaving was taught in a j 
large cabin made possible by Miss i 
Lucy Morgan, who first went into this J 
region about seven years ago, Mr. 
Worst said. Her first cabin was built 
of logs dragged to the spot by the 
mountain women themselves. Later 
Morgan Hall was built, where the in- 
stitute was held last summer. Here 12 
harness looms instead of four were 
introduced and 12 treadles when for- 
merly only six were employed. This 
gave a much wider range in pattern- 
making, especially in the linens. 

"Summer-and-winter" weaving and 
the "double weave," which has been 
considered a lost art by the moun- 
taineers, were eagerly followed. Using 
two colors, the craftsmen wove coun- 
terpanes with one color showing on 
one side and the other on the oppo- 
site side, thus producing a coverlet 
which their ancestors would have used 
in summer with the light side up and 
in winter with the dark side up. 
Hence the name, "Summer and Win- 
ter." 

Old recipes for dyes have been pre- 
served by the sturdy mountain 
women. They know all the herbs of 
the mountain side. A little plant 
called madder is pulled up roots and 
all. When it is boiled, the yarn is 
immersed in the liquid and comes out 
a delicate rose color. For shades of 
brown, old butternut and walnut 
husks are boiled. Then by dropping a 
piece of copperas in this solution 
black is produced. 

A Pot cf Indigo 

An old indigo pot on the back of 
the stove is one of the most treas- 
ured and indispensable articles of a 
mountaineer's cabin. For years, even 
from one generation to another, this 
same pot is kept working. By taking 
out a little of the liquid another pot 
can be started. One thrifty woman, 
with great pride offered Mr. Worst 
a little pot of indigo taken from hers 
which she claimed had been started 
by ancestors before the Civil War. 

A great change has taken place in 
their homes and living conditions. 
The one-room cabins with wet and 
drafty cracks between the logs are 
being sealed up. Improvements have 
been made in more than 35 of these 



inadequate homes in the neighbor- 
hood of Berea, Ky., where Mr. Worst 
also visits. Much of this transforma- 
tion is due to the work of Mrs. F. E. 
Matheny, whose home has been a cen- 
ter for mountain women for the last 
seven or eight years. She provides 
them with materials, and orders looms 
to be placed in their homes. Mary 
Anderson, who herself was a moun- 
tain woman, also lives in Berea and 
has done a valuable work among the 
women she understands so well. 
"How fine it is to give these j 

courageous and eager people some- 

S feeUng. "Weaving lovely things 
Tpon her loom in intimate surround- 
ings where she may have quiet and 
nrivacv with a little garden of flowers 
cutsiue: S£ mountain woman's Me is 

I happier than it would be in a factory 
with the clatter and clang of 
machines about her, I believe." 

That people will continue to buy 
the products of these mountain looms 
seems to be one of Mr. Worst's great- 
est hopes. Each year he brings back 
to Chicago many exquisite pieces to 
be sold with no profit to himself. And 
each summer he returns to his moun- 
tain friends with new ideas for 
articles which he thinks will sell. 



k 




On This Loom .One Hundred Years Old This Woman of the North Carolina 
Mountains Is Making Objects Which Will Sell in the Northern Cities 
and Enable Her to Add Beauty and Comfort to the Austere Life of a 
Sterile Country. 




is president of Stone & Webster 
ting Corporation. 

Hovey was associated with 
r, Peabody & Co. from 1900 to 
He is a member of the Boston 
few York Stock Exchanges. Al- 
i. Gordon is also a graduate of 
trd College and Business School, 
as .been with Goldman, Sachs 
. since 1925. 

der, Peabody & Co. has always 
i an important role in invest- 

banking in the United States, 
idition to its extensive invest- 

security business, it has been 
: in foreign exchange, and 
ilized in commercial and travel- 
lers of credit. 

OTISH WOOLEN MEN 
COMI NG TO BOSTON 

cstigating the possibilities of ex- 
on of the market in the United 
5 for tweeds and woolens made 
otland. a delegation of the Asso- 
n of Scottish Woolen Manufac- 
> will reach Boston at 10 p. m. 
at from New York. Their head- 
ers while in Boston, are to be at 
'arker House. This is said to be 
rst delegation of Scotland woolen 
to visit Boston. They will be here 
y tomorrow, leaving at 7:35 p. m. 
;ochester, N. Y. 

3 delegation consists of Arthur 
ns, C. B. E.; J. MacPherson 
n, vice-president of the asso- 
m; John Hutcheson and E. S. 
son. They have already visited 
York, Washington and Philadel- 
and are planning to go to lead- 
ities of this country and Canada. 



A North Carolina Mountain Woman Traveling to Penland to Learn the 
Craft of the Loom and the Joy of Artistic Expression. 



/ENTS TONIGHT 



EVENTS TOMORROW 

;achusetts Horticultural Society: Flower 
Mechanics Building, 9 a. m. to 10 p. mT, 
:h March 21. 

on Chapter of Hadassah: Afternoon 
ig and reception; Marvin Lowenthal, 
jan editor, Menorah Journal, speaker; 
Ginsburg, soloist; Brookline Temple 

on Rotary Club: Luncheon; entertain- 
~ - .. j„ nfooParhnp Scotch character 



'■■-•" 



Revival of an Ancient Craft 



F 



Written for The Chsi 

ROM the "land of the infidel" | 
returning Crusaders brought to ' 
Flanders the seed of the art of 
tapestry weaving, and planted it, 
early in the fourteenth century, in the 
city of Arras. Thence its roots spread 
j to other Flemish cities, to France and 
! to England, but until the eighteenth 
century woven pictorial hangings were 
! known in those countries as arras. It 
may have been from the east that far- 
voyaging Norsemen, several hundred 
I years earlier, learned the craft of 
picture weaving, for fragments of 
tapestry have been found in buried 
Viking ships, and in the Norwegian 
Folk Museum of Oslo may yet be seen 
the famous Baldishol Tapestry, said 
to date from 1180 A. D. Always a do- 
mestic occupation in the northern 
countries, the practice of tapestry 
weaving had nearly died out in Scan- 
dinavia when, some 50 years ago, a 
Norwegian artist, Mrs. Frida Hansen, 
undertook to revive the art. Through 
her and her followers it has now 
been brought to a position of high 
rank among Norwegian handcrafts. 

To learn at first hand something of 
the ancient craft and its modern re- 
vival, a representative of The Chris- 
tian Science Monitor visited the studio 
of Mrs. Else Bockmann, a young Nor- 
wegian woman who, in the brief year 
she has been in America, has won 
recognition here as a master in the 
the art. Surrounded by looms of all 
shapes and sizes, Mrs. Bockmann, trim 
and dainty in a nile-green smock, 
proffered refreshment with true Nor- 
wegian hospitality, and later explained 
with enthusiasm the various processes 
of her work. 

Dyed in the Fleece 

Much of the charm of Norwegian 
textiles, according to Mrs. Bockmann, 
lies in the fact that the raw wool is 
dyed before it is spun, and with colors 
obtained from mosses, lichens, and 
other vegetable sources. 

"In America you spin your yarns 
before they are dyed," she said. "As a 
result they are of even hue and have 



not the variation found in Norwegian 
yarns. With us, the wool is dyed 
first, and then as we spin it we can 
obtain just the color combinations we 
want." 

. She turned to a large bright green 
stained wooden box by her side, made 
originally for carrying the great 
cakes which Norwegian guests always 
1 v ake to their hostesses when invited 
parties. Removing the heavy lid, 



^ 



otian Science Monitor 

she disclosed masses of raw wool in 
rich glowing colors. From the tumbled 
assortment she chose some soft blue, 
some violet, and a few wisps of a 
raspberry tone. Deftly she carded 
them on old hand cards that looked 
like a cople of currycombs, working 
the tangled wad first this way and 
then that, until she had a fluffy hand- 
ful of wool. She twisted a strand, 
fastened it to the reel of her spinning 
wheel, and as she talked, spun the 
wool into a smooth even yarn with 
colors perfectly blended. 

"I buy all my wool in the raw state, 
and color it with vegetable dyes," 
she explained. "In fact, the members 
of the Society for Home Craft to 
which I belong, and which is spon- 
sored by the Norwegian Government, 
are pledged to use only hand-spun, 
hand-dyed yarns. These browns, now, 
are dyed by boiling with butternut 
shells; for the yellows I use birch 
leaves. Madder produces splendid reds, 
and from indigo and other roots and 
mosses I get my blues and greens." 
Drawn to the Craft 

Questioned as to whether she had 
learned to use the spinning wheel as 
a child, and if all Norwegian children 
are taught to spin and weave, she 
shook her head. 

"By no means," she answered. "It i 
was not until 12 years ago that I took | 
up this work. I was preparing myself 
for the position of curator of the tex- 
tile department of the Norwegian 
Folk Museum, of Oslo. I wanted to be 
familiar with the details of textile 
production so I undertook to learn 
the weavers' art in all its branches. 

Eventually, however, I became so in- 
terested in the craft that I gave up 
the idea of a curatorship, and devoted 
myself to spinning, weaving and dye- 
ing. It was a happy decision, for since 
my marriage I have been able to carry 
on the work in my own home. Now 
I have pupils coming to me from 
northern New England and from the 
middle western states, as well as from 
around Boston; and you can see," 
laughingly indicating the loom-filled 
room, "that before long I shall be 
forced to find larger quarters." 

Upon the walls of the room hung 
some of the tapestries which Mrs. 
Bockmann had displayed at the great 
exhibition of Norwegian arts and in- 
dustries held in Bergen in 1928. With 
the revival of interest in the craft, 
she remarked, such wall coverings 
have come to be much in demand in 



her country, and are increasingly 
popular in America. 

Methods Compared 

"The nearest approach to tapestry 
weaving native to America," Mrs. 
Bockmann said, "is in certain pic- 
torial textiles of the Navajo Indians. 
As a rule, American hand-weavers 
use the harness method on horizontal 
looms, where the intricacy of the 
weave is determined by the way in 
I which the warp is threaded on to the 
harness. Once threaded, the harness 
is raised or lowered by a foot treadle 
and the shuttle bearing the woof 
I thrown back and forth. Norwegian 
tapestry weaving is less mechanical. 
Let me show you." 

She seated herself before a large 
vertical loom, on which was growing 
a highly decorative tapestry. It por- 
trayed a romantic looking lady lean- 
ing from her chamber window to 
gaze upon a fabulous bird with mag- 
nificently curling tail feathers, 
perched on a tree hung v/ith blossoms 
the color of flaming Japanese maples. 
Immediately behind the tapestry 
hung a full-sized working drawing in 



charcoal, which was being followed 
in detail. Beside the loom was pinned 
a small colored sketch of the design. 

Picking up first one and then an- 
other of the countless small skeins of 
yarn with which the fabric was 
woven, dexterously Mrs. Bockmann 
lifted the strong hard-spun cotton: 
warp, threaded the yarns in and out, 
and pushed them firmly into place ^ 
with a silver fork, according to the old ' 
Norwegian custom, her fingers mov- 
ing so rapidly her visitor could scarce- 
ly follow them. 

"We never use the shuttle for this," 
she explained, "because the tones are 
constantly varying, and the same 
yarn may be used for but an inch or 
two. Here, for instance, are more 
than 20 hues in the first few inches. 
In such pieces, where there are large 
surfaces to be worked, the subtle 
shading of Norwegian weaving can 
best be appreciated, for it is the var- 
iation of tints in place of monotone 
color which gives depth and richness 
to the finished product. 

Locking: Colors 

"You will see," illustrating the 
method as she talked, "that in making 
a change of color on a vertical line 
the threads are carefully interwoven 
or 'locked,' and the ends threaded in 
with a needle at the back. In this 
way the reverse side appears the same 
as the front. The correct method of 
'locking' colors is the most difficult 
step a beginner has to learn, but it 
must be mastered if bulkiness is to be 
avoided. It has from earliest times 




ture Tapestry on a Vertical Loom. In Such Large Wooden Boxes as the One on the Ta 
Norwegian Women When Invited to a Party to Carry Great Cakes to Their Hostess. 



been a characteristic of Norwegian 
tapestry weaving. In French tapes- 
tries the colors are not interwoven." 

During the past few months Mrs. 
Eockmann has frequently been called 
on to display her art at various crafts- 
man exhibitions in Boston, where her 
skill at the spinning wheel as well as 
the loom never fails to draw a throng 
of fascinated spectators. 



A 



Twisted and Mottled Dyeing 



written for T HE Chri correct color is produced on a portion 
of?: the design, protect it from blend- 
ing with other colors in the other dye 
bath, either by binding it completely 
or^by holding it above the surface of 
the other dye baths. 

Color put on in this way is seldom 
aslevel and clear as that put on in a 
single hot bath, but the unusual and 
lovely shades obtained by this method 
more than compensate. Silk dyed 
in, this way cannot be laundered but 



TWISTED dyeing is just what the 
name implies. An attractive scarf 
can be made by taking hold of 
twQ opposite corners (bias of the 
goods) and twisting one corner to the 
right and the other to the left until 
It i% as tight as a rope, then doubling 
the rope and twisting again, and 
doubling a second time. After this the 



poods should be firmly tied at the rn^st be dry cleaned. Portions of the 



ends with a rag or string, and im 
mersed in a boiling dye bath for 10 
or 15 minutes, then untied and rinsed 
In clear cold water. 

The result of twisted dyeing is very 
pleasing even when only one color is 
used. It is, however, possible to com- 
bine colors. After the first color is 
secured, untie and retwist the mate- 
rial so that the undyed surfaces are 
exposed to take the new color. 
Mottled Dyeing 

B'unch up the material into a ball- 
shaped mass. Wrap it, not too 
tightly, with a string or cord, skip- 
ping about over the ball of cloth, so 
that most of the outside will be un- 
covered. The wrapping should be just 
sufficient to hold the ball together. 
Boil in the dye bath 10 or 15 minutes, 
rinse well, untie, and shake out. Then 
rebunch the material so that the un- 
dyed parts will come to the surface 
and the dyed parts will be mostly in- 
side. Dye some other color, rinse, etc. 
Repeat this process for every color 
added. 

In mottled dyeing care must be 
used in the blending of colors and 
thought given to the result of letting 
colors overlap where part of the dyed 
material is exposed to a second color 
dyping. The last color applied may be 
used for several bunchings and dip- 
pings of the material, in order to 
secure uniform distribution of color 
throughout. 

Where one color blends into another 
in the design, a third color is produced, 
so that many three-color combinations 
can be obtained with two dyes. Dye 
the lightest colors first and when the 



design may be untied while the silk is 
wet, but the material should usually 
be nearly dry before new tyings are 
pift in. After the final dipping, allow 
it to become nearly dry before press- 
ing. 

There is another process of decora- 
tive dyeing which is just the reverse 
of.the usual process of tie-dyeing. The 

cloth is first dyed a dark color by 
piling one color on top of another. 
The design is then tied and the cloth 
dipped in a bleaching compound, with 




Miss Lombroso said she intended to 
study the problem of the unemployed. 
She thinks that the whole world is 
looking to America for a solution of 
that question, but that America is still 
looking, at things from the wrong end 
of the telescope. She favors a return 
to handicrafts, to fewer things better] 
made, and every one contributing some-* 
thing to the production. 

"The apple selling cannot even pre! 
tend to be a solution of the problem. I 
she said. "The unemployed would be 
better off making shoes, tilling the soil] 
Women will be forced to go back td 
their old tasks. They moved too quick* 
ly, and it will be difficult for them no\J 
to do the things they will have to doj 
It's a world crisis. It has been comina 
for the last thirty years, but the wa| 
has quickened it." 

Miss Lombroso hopes that her daugh- 
ter, who is now seeing America for the 
first time, will find that the home is 
the sphere for her talents. She believes 
that in choosing a career, a woman 
should select one in which not only 
she. the individual woman, but woman 
In general is fundamentally superior 
to man. Miss Lombroso's latest >-'ok. 
\ "The Tragedies of Progress," will be 
V published on March 24. 



A Scarf in Which the Design 
Formed by Mottled Dyeing. 



the result that a dark-colored design I 
is produced against a light back- j 
ground. The bleaching compound used 
is sodium hydrosulphite, which will 
Hot harm the most delicate silk. Some 
colors, such as yellow, are not affected 
by it. By dyeing over such basic colors 
and bleaching back again or by dye- 
ing a dark color and bleaching back 
to white and then redipping in an- 
other color very unusual effects may 
be obtained. As soon as one has 
learned the little intricacies of tying 
and mastered the technique of the 
dye pot, one should strive for beautiful 
and unusual colors and color combina- 
tions. Shaded effects may be obtained 
by allowing certain portions of the 
material to stay longer in the dye bath 
than others. 

Unusual Handkerchiefs 
When the fun of making colored 
handkerchiefs is discovered, the crafts- 
man will keep herself supplied with 
them and make them for gifts besides. 
A yard of handkerchief linen will 
supply nine 12-inch squares. The hems 
may be rolled before dyeing so that 
the stitches will be the same color as 
the handkerchief, or after the hand- 
kerchief is dyed the hem can be rolled 
and whipped or cross-stitched in a 
contrasting color. After experimenting 
with linen, try the same designs on 
georgette and chiffon handkerchiefs. 
It is a fascinating experiment, spe- 
cially when new designs and unusual 
color combinations are attempted. 



APPALACHIAN HOMESPUN 

MOUNTAIN HOMESPUN. By 
Frances Louisa Goodrich. Il- 
lustrated. 91 pp. New Haven: 
Yale University Press. $3. 

BEAUTIFULLY made, this hand- 
some book will at first glance 
enlist the interest of those who 
love the feel and the look of such 
volumes. As for its content, that 
will, of course, be chiefly of conse- 
quence to those who are interested 
in the home crafts that a genera- 
tion ago were still followed in the 
southern Appalachian Mountains or 
in the modern outgrowths that are 
rooted in them. Miss Goodrich 
went in 1890 to live among the 
mountain people of North Carolina, 
and, moved by the desire to bring 
color and interest into the lonely, 
monotonous lives of the women, she 
was able to bring about a revival of 

the mountain handicraft of various 

< 

sorts. 

This book tells in a piquant, de- 
lightful fashion about the things she 
learned from the mountain women 
concerning these crafts and con- 
cerning the lives and characters of 
some of them. In the first section 
there is a chapter on the old crafts 
of these mountain people, among 
whom the pioneer self-sufficiency of 
each home to its own needs lasted 
much longer (until a generation 
ago, in fact) than it did elsewhere 
in the country. Here the author de- 
scribes at length the weaving art. 
how the materials were obtained 
and prepared, what the processes 
were, including that of dyeing and 
the making of dyes, and what prod- 
ucts were made. There are short j 
accounts also of the making of! 
quilts and coverlets, with much in- j 
teresting matter about their many j 
patterns; of chairs, baskets and pot- | 
tery. Another chapter of this sec- j 
tion tells the story of the establish- j 
ment of the Allanstand Cottage in- | 
dustries more than thirty years ago 
and its success, the beginnings a lit- 
tle later of the Biltmore Estate In- 
dustries and the more recent ven- 
ture of the Toy Makers and Wood 
Carvers of Tryon, N. C. In the ap- 
pendix is a chapter explaining in 



detail the working of the loom and 
another that lists with annotations 
all the plants used for dyeing in the 
North Carolina mountain region. 

A charming human interest is 
given to the book by a series of 
seven sketches of mountain women 
of fine, capable, kindly character 
and their lives. This series makes a 
good and just antidote to all the 
tales of blood feuds, murders and 
moonshining that have won so 
much attention that they have col- 
ored the general conception through- 
out the North of mountain life and 
character. 



ZU 



<£!C,bZJZt ° l'<> THE L, TER/ 

A Post-Mortem on the Home 

HE DID NOT SHIRK his responsibility— that father 
of fifty years ago. 
He cared for his farm, if he were a farmer; did 
his duty by his neighbors, kept open house, and tried to raise 
his sons and daughters to be worthy of the family name. 
In brief, he made a home. 

And in this home the mother, aided by servants, if she had 
them, cooked, cleaned, sewed, nursed the sick, washed and 
ironed, and bore children, believing with the psalmist that 
"happy is he whose quiver is full." 

The boys and girls grew up, learned at an early age to share 
in the family's work life. A few went off to college, but for 
the most part they stayed at home until they were ready to 
make homes of their own. 

But to-day, writes Maude Dutton Lynch in The Forum, 
"it is as if a landslide had passed over the country. One still 
finds isolated exceptions, but for the most part these homes 
have been cleared off the map by social and economic causes 
as completely as if they had been razed by some great catas- 
trophe of nature. " 

Now Mrs. Lynch, we are told, has spent the last twenty years 
in creating such a home as she describes in her article. She 
has five children, the oldest nineteen and the youngest four- 
teen. But she not only has time to raise them, she finds odd 
moments to write articles and books for children. She may 
be considered, then, an authority on the meaning of a home. 
The war, the emancipation of woman and her entrance into 
industry, prohibitive building prices, the general breakdown of 
moral fiber, and the desire to escape responsibilities, the fetish 
of comfort-worship — these are the things which this mother 
finds have contributed to the passing of the home. 

The tremendous energy of the pioneers, she writes, has 
passed its goal of satisfying mere want and gone on to satisfy- 
ing the desire for material comfort, and she says: ***) 



"This is the force that has built apartment houses on the 
sites of old homesteads, the force which, during the ten years 
following the outbreak of the war, increased the output of bak- 
eries 60 per cent, and the amount of Work done in laundries 
57 per cent., while the population was increasing less than 15 
per cent.; and which, between 1910 and 1920, increased the 
number of delicatessen shops in the United States three times 
as fast as the population. 

"It stimulated an unprecedented growth of tea-rooms, drug- 
store lunch counters, ready-made clothing stores, and dry- 
cleaning establishments. 

"Very quietly but very swiftly these novelties have been 
taking over the work of the household, until now they are actually 
challenging the existence of the home." 

JLducators assume the task of the parents. Day schools are 
including play as well as work in their programs, so that many 
children do little at home besides eat two meals and sleep. 
Boarding schools and summer camps, constantly increasing in 
number, assume practically entire charge of boys and girls from 
kindergarten to college. Even infants are provided for in pre- 
schools, where trained psychologists take the place of mere mothers. 
Recreation is taken in public parks and playgrounds; "movie 
theaters, professional baseball, fights, college football empty the 
home evenings and holidays. New Year's Eve dinners in hotels 
or clubs are more popular to-day than the old-fashioned family 
gathering formerly assembled so religiously at Thanksgiving 
and Christmas." And, says Mrs. Lynch: 

"Now I think that many parents who are alarmed by the 
boredom and other unhealthy symptoms in their young sons and 
daughters would do well to focus upon our present non-func- 
tioning homes the same keen psychological study that educators 
have focused upon our schools. 

"My own belief is that we would find that our homes also 
needed to be re-created as activity centers. Because we no 

longer need to spin, weave, bake, or sew, it does not follow 
that we must be idle. The desire to do is not going to be bred 
out of man's nature by the machinery of our iron-hearted age. 

" I am not referring now to genius, but to all those inner desires, 
those strangely persistent urges in every man's and every 
woman's nature which, whether or not successfully repressed 
by the circumstances of life, are still the dominant molders of 
personality. 

"One of the tragedies of modern life is that, for most of us, 
our work is set distinctly apart from these longings and cravings 
that are so peculiarly our own. The seeking, adventurous spirit 
has been trampled out of the day's work by the hard, demand- 
ing regime of efficiency. 

"Most of us lead the monotonous life of robots, and the 
cumulative effects of monotony are deadly. They slowly suffo- 
cate man's spirit. 

"In this toxic atmosphere only stimulants can rouse us, and 
thus we turn to the overemphasized beat of jazz, the melodrama 
of the screen, the dazzling gyrations of lights. 

"Only through artificial respiration does the jaded spirit 
revive." 

JL et, says Mrs. Lynch, any psychologist will tell you that if 
we could develop our innate interests, we could rid ourselves 



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for these responsibilities. She adds: 

"And these will be the parents who will realize that we all 
need a place during our growing years where we can learn, 
by watching, by simply living with those who are dear to us, 
the very difficult art of becoming civilized. For we all need a 
place where patience, which is born simultaneously with other 
maternal instincts, bears and forbears with us while we serve our 
apprenticeship to living. 

"We need a place where the judgments placed upon the 
riotous whims and impulses of our adolescence are softened by 
affection; a place to which we distinctly feel kinship, to which we 
belong not as an individual but as a family group, for the sense 
of membership will be an important factor in our later social life. 
And we need a place where the door is always open, where 
help is given always without question, at any moment, in any 
need." 



MASSACHUSETTS 
INDUSTRIES 




FOR THE BLIND 



TRADE MARK 

General Offices 

110 Tremont Street, Boston 

Blind Handicraft Shop 

39 Newbury Street, Boston 

Branch Shop 

36 Eagle Street, Pittsfield 

Woolson House Industries 

, 48, InmanStreet, Cambridge 

- 
Workshop Industries 

26 Lansdowne Street, Cambridge 
418 Second Street, Fall River 
159 Moody Street, Lowell 
36 Eagle Street, Pittsfield 
33 Highland Street, Worcester 



5m-7-'30. No. 9740 



Modern Swedish Decorative Art. By Dr. 
Nils G. Wollix. (The Architectural 
Press. 42s. net.) 

The Architectural Review. (Swedish Exhi- 
bition Special Number. 2s. 6cl. net.) 

Glancing through the three hundred odd 
plates of Dr. Wollin's book, we are struck by 
the thought that here are the products of a 
happier country than our own. We, in 
common with all pioneers, have the mortifica- 
tion to see others profit by our mistakes. 
Nevertheless, these mistakes need never have 
been so glaring, nor need we now persist in 
them. During the nineteenth century our 
natural resources carried us forward in spite 
of ourselves, and we proudly owned England 
the workshop of the world. It was, unfortu- 
nately, a workshop that was never tidied; and 
the dirt and disorder produced at last minds 
that were unable to distinguish the false from 
the true. Thus falsity of form and falsity of 
workmanship and material obtained an un- 
pa railed currency simply because articles that 
were really cheap could be made more or less 
to appear expensive, and sound judgment in 
these matters had remained with a very small 
minority whose warnings remained unheeded. 
Steam and coal ruled the world and England 
was their prophet. Those countries, Sweden 
among them, whose natural resources forbade 
expansion on our lines we were apt to regard 
as " backward," especially if they refused to 
partake of more than a minimum of the 
vinegar we offered with many protestations 
that it was wine. We have paid dearly for 
our disregard of the warnings of Ruskin and 
Morris. We could have been in a position to 
meet the new power — electricity — which 
places our competitors on a more equal foot- 
ing if we had striven to keep the standard of 
workmanship which was once our boast arid 
the standard of design that was once our 
pride. 

In the nineteenth century art in industry 
usually meant the imitation of the effects of 
handicrafts by means of machines. This 
naive attitude still persists, and accounts, 
among other things, for the phenomena in 
most of the shop-windows of Tottenham 
Court-road. But another cry is heard and is 
increasing in volume — industrial art— which 
means something very different. Art isal last 
((•asserting itself as one of the most important 
factors of life ; and thus art, which had 
until the nineteenth century been in- 
separable from handicrafts, is now imposing 
itself upon machinery. We could not stop 
it even if we wished : but here m England 
its long divorce from industry renders the 
ta^k of union difficult in a degree unrealizable 
by those whose fortune forbade their being 
.swamped in the high spirits of industry in its 
hobbledehoy stage. Sweden is happy indeed 
that her mineral wealth was <if a kind that 
could not suppoit industry is the terra was 
understood in the nineteenth centnrv. Her 



people remained on the land, and could not 
drift to towns thai spuing up with the 
rapidity and ugliness of fungi. The tradi- 
tions of handicrafts remained, impaired, 
it is true, by the limited importation of 
machine-made goods. Thus in the long winter 
evenings the women of Skania still worked the 
motives that their ancestors had copied from 
a cloak or scarf brought back by a soldier 
relative t (turned from service under the 
Emperor at Constantinople. Thus they re- 
tained that firm judgment of material and 
workmanship that is the privilege of those who 
work with their hands. Their very provin- 
cialism has helped them: for. strong in their 
own traditions, they can be as eclectic as they 
like, knowing that their own character will 
show through. There is perhaps no better 
example of national character showing 
through the most diverse motives than 
Ostberg's Town Hall at Stockholm. Again, 
we do not need to be reminded of Asplund's 
admiration of Sir John Soane when standing 
in the great hook hall in the Stockholm Public 
Library, yet the effect is appropriately 
Swedish. 

Thus it is with all the illustrations in these 
two volumes; they all have that national char- 
acter so easily felt and so hard to explain. 
Their effect as a whole is homogeneous in a 
degree that more cosmopolitan countries- 
Fiance or Germany, for instance — hardly 
ever achieve. At one time the romantic, at 
another the classical, prevails; yet, placed side 
by side, no antagonism between the objects is 
felt, only the pleasant effect of an unstable 
but very perfectly balanced equilibrium. The 
mo.-i diverse motives may be recognized ; at 
one time the patterns of Ukrainian embroid- 
ery, at another the bold reeds and volutes of 
oui own Regency period, yet again the 
metopes of the Parthenon are drawn upon, 
yet the national character is stamped on every 
one. Even the anon tenth' J*™ 



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elusive 
tage at 



TURN TO OLD HAND LOOMS. 



French-Canadians Add to Incomes 
by Making Homespuns. 

More than 10,000 persons in the 
Province of Quebec are able to make 
a living or add to their family bud- 
get during these times of depression 
by using the ancient hand looms in 
their own homes to create fine Habi- 
tant homespuns, according to O. E. 
Beriau, director of the Homecraft 
Division of the Quebec Department 
of Agriculture. 

Mr. Beriau tells in a bulletin of the 
work that, is being done to encourage 
the French Canadian people in rural 
districts to develop these old arts 
and thereby be assured of a good 
income instead of coming into the 
cities and joining the ranks of the 
unemployed. 

"The Habitant people," he says, 
"are naturally artistic and it is a 
shame that voung men and young 
women should come into the larger 
cities in search of employment when 
there is such a vast field open to 
them in their own homes. We are 
doing our best to teach these people 
the value of their own skill and our 
work in this connection, I hope, may 
do much to relieve the unemployment 
situation in this Province. There are 
now hand looms in about 10,000 
French Canadian homes and there is 
no difficulty in disposing of the pro- 
ducts of these looms. The difficulty 
is not in marketing but in supplying 
the demand." 

Mr. Beriau explained that the ma- 
jority of Habitant people make their 
own looms from wood on their own 
farms. Their wool is obtained from 
their own flocks of sheep and the 
dyes are made from the vegetables 
they grow. 

"The Habitant," he said, "has ab- 
solutely no expense and the revenue 
from the sale of well-made handi- 
crafts may go as high as $100 a 
month or more, depending upon the 
skill of the worker." 

While the homespun blankets and 
hand worked mats are the best 
known of Habitant products, other 
arts are rapidly being developed un- 
der the guidance of the department. 
At Murray Bay there are several 
carpenters who are skilled in the 
making of period furniture; pottery 
work is being encouraged and many 
other arts are developing. 



Nl 



p 



Fire Record. 



SL-Slight. 
TL— Total loss 



ND— No damage. 
^Q— Considerable. 



il? 



L- 



aiict ._~~ 



On Khaddar. 



The above is the title of a book- 
let of 60 pages written by Dr. Pat- 
tabi Sitaramayya, the well-known 
^ndhra Congress leader, and re- 
cently published by Messrs. G. A. 
Natesan and Co. of Madras. The 
booklet is a brief, bright and con- 
vincing; case for khaddar. and if 
oriced at 4 as. instead of eight, it 
would command, a much wider 
sale and thereby be of great pro- 
pagandist value. With many 
telling facts and figures and clin- 
ching arguments the author prov- 
es that the khaddar movement is 
a movement of great economic, 
humanitarian and also political 
value, a movement with this 
unique feature that in it "every 
man. woman and child in <Jndia 
can render adequate assistance," 







Home -Work Industries 

European Countries Set Example that America Might Well Consider 



lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllUllllllllllllllltlllllllHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIHII Stanley F. Morse llllllllllll!ll!lllllilillllllltllilllllillllllltii!lllillllflllillltlll!lllfll(|l||ilHIIHIH' 

Agricultural Engineer, Statesburg, S. C, in the Manufacturers Record 



AS one effect of the world economic 
/ \ deflation we are beginning to 
J ^ ^\ see the importance and value of 
small things. SmaU but sure 
profits, moderate but steady wages and 
even just a good living and freedom from 
debt weigh much more now than in 
recent yeans. In this connection a first- 
hand study of economic conditions in 
England, France, Spain and Italy has 
convinced me that the lot of the "Euro- 
pean peasant" can stand comparison with 
-such American "independent" farmers as 
may be hardly able to make ends meet, 
to say nothing of a profit. 

Living on the Farm 

The main object of the European 
peasant is to raise enough for hLs family 
to eat, and he does so, raising wheat and 
other foods at a cost which would be 
uneconomic if the labor of himself and 
family were figured at current wages. 
Thus, in Italy, with an import duty of 
67 cents a bushel on wheat, it has been 



found that the cost of imported wheat 
plus the duty was less than it costs the 
Italian farmer to produce it. Yet Italy 
raises wheat and the country is in good 
condition. 

Perhaps we shall have to revise some 
of our standards and accept a conclusion 
that instead of a farmer's time being 
worth so much per hour or per day it is 
worth what he produces with it. Surely 
the farmer who so manages that he 
raises most of what his family eats and 
sells enough products to buy his other 
necessities is better off than the larger 
scale farmer who fails to do this, and in 
addition makes no money on liis regular 
farm products and has to borrow to live. 

Let the Problem Solve Itself 

I have pointed out that our agri- 
cultural problem would virtually solve 
itself if left alone, because the operation 
of the economic laws would elimi.nate 
those farmers who were unable to oper- 
ate at a profit or supply their own living 
needs. This, however, would create 
another problem of what to do with the 
eliminated farmers. As one remedy, I 
suggested that decentralization of certain 
industries and the establishment of 



smaller units in rural districts would 
provide part-time employment and suffi- 
cient ready cash for nearby farmers "liv- 
ing - at home" on their own farms. I 
now wish to suggest another source of 
income for the support of rural families, 
to take up some of the labor slack. 

Products Made in the Home 

During a recent visit to investigate 
agricultural conditions around Limoges, 
France, I visited the Industrial Museum 
maintained to exhibit the products of 
some fifty industries of the Seventh Eco- 
nomic Region of France. Attractively 
displayed are numerous samples of the 
artistic and useful articles produced 
there. What impressed me was that 
most of these products were made from 
local raw materials, such as kaolin, wood, 
hides and farm crops. Here is a strongly 
industrialized agricultural region, with 
many of the farm products being used 
as raw materials. For instance, the ex- 
cellent beef breed of Limousine cattle 
produces good quality hides, which are 
tanned into fine leather from which 
shoes and other leather goods are made. 
Surely, in many sections of the South 
there are places where raw materials, 
cheap hydro-electric power and an un- 
employed rural population offer an op- 
portunity for industrial development that 
is well worth study. 

| Articles That Sell Themselves 

Another very striking fact about the 
articles offered for sale in France and 

I Italy is their beauty and artistic merit. 

! Woodwork, needlework, glassware, porce- 
lains, fabrics and the like are evidence 
of individual workmanship of a high 
order. These lovely things almost sell 
themselves; no wonder that American 
tourists feel impelled to buy to the limit. 
This indicates that there is a market in 
this country for real quality goods of a 
sort that we now import. 

Are we not rather sated with stand- 
ardized, unartistic, machine-made articles 
which lack the individuality of the 
European imports? What is now needed 
to stimulate trade is something different 
to sell — something that people will want 
to buy. Can we produce such things in 
this country? Of course, I understand 
that many of the European craftsmen 
have inherited their trades and have 
grown up in them; yet, Italy sends in- 
structors to teach its women needle- 
work and lacework and new designs. 
Why could not we, employing either 
some of our own high-class workmen or 
imported worker-artists, begin to teach 
our own people in a few selected rural 
communities how to make some of these 
fine goods? 

We have the raw materials, the power 
and intelligent labor. Cheap power 
should permit the operation of certain 
machines, such as lathes and looms, at 



home or in small factories. In the 
South we have kaolin for fine porcelain, 
clays for pottery, cotton and wool for 
woven goods, needlework and special 
fabrics; woods for fancy boxes, canes, 
etc.; hides for fine leather goods, iron 
for metal work, and so on. Some home 
woodworking industries have been estab- 
lished in western Carolina. Would it 
not be possible for the business men of 
a community to underwrite the employ- 
ment of instructors and the development 
of such handicraft or home-work indus- 
tries, to provide profitable work for the 
farmers and their families who need to 
supplement their meagre farm incomes? 
We have become so accustomed to low- 
cost mass production that the handwork 
artist seems to be almost out of the 
picture. But, if we can make quality 
products to sell at a higher price than 
machine-made goods, we should be able 
gradually to capture the market now 
held by imported articles. 

Rural Industries 

Several attempts have been made in 
this country to introduce "home handi- 
craft" work and "arts and crafts" work, 
with more or less success. The BiH- 
more Industries homespuns at Asheville,. 
N. C, and the output of Elbert Hub- 
bard's "Roycrofters" in New York are 
examples. Apparently, now, there is a 
need for small factories and home han- 
dicraft industries for certain rural dis- 
tricts, and the decline of costs and prices 
indicates that new outlets for raw mate- 
rials and the stimulation of trade by new 
products may be beneficial to business. 
In Massachusetts, the Women's Educa- 
tional Union of Boston is working to es- 
tablish a New England rural industries 
association to develop handwork arts and 
crafts in rural sections. 

The present crisis may be met in part 
by taking stock of our resources and op- 
portunities, making long-time plans for 
developing them and then getting behind 
these plans with capital and hard work, 
to push them to a successful conclusion. 
States and counties well might undertake 
economic surveys and prepare practical 
development programs. This is a job that 
can best be done by citizens' organiza- 
tions, in a business-like way — the more 
these projects are divorced from politics 
and Governmental red tape, the greater 
success they are likely to achieve. 






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FREDERICK L. LEWTON 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND INDUSTRIES 



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Textile High School Courses 
Cover Every Phase of Industry 

Institution Offers Subjects Ranging From Buying 
of Material to Designing; Has 5,400 Students; 
Museum Contains Vast Collection of Fabrics 

By F. Reed Alvord 

The Textile High School, whose new building was opened a little over 
a year ago at 351 West Eighteenth Street to train students for the textile in- 
dustry, has doubled its enrollment during the depression. The classrooms, 
designed to accommodate thirty-six students, have frequently had forty 
students crowded into them, with the result that the faculty has had to 
consider expanding the divisions of«* 



its classes. 

The explanation of this unsual situ- 
ation, according to Dr. William H. 
Dooley. principal of the school, lies 
in the fact that the vocational as- 
pect of the training which the school 
gives is regarded merely as a by- 
product of the general scheme of edu- 
cation, and not as an end in itself. 
When other schools were so intent 
upon producing master craftsmen in 
their respective fields they tempo- 
rarily lost sight of the fact that their 
experiment could have any sociologic 
value; they forgot to consider the 
"average" students in their rush to 
produce experts. 

Students' Minds Varied 

"New York City, like every other 
community, has various types of boys 
and girls of high school age, ranging 
from the book -minded type to those 
who have an intensively practical 
mind," Dr. Dooley said. "Between 
these limits of human interests and 
talents there are many shades of dif- 
ferences, although this distribution 
does not necessarily mean that one 
type is superior to another, but simply 
that each one simply has a different 
mind. 

"The Textile High School was pri- 
marily founded on the basis of edu- 
cating the particular types of indi- 
viduals who cannot profit by an 
academic education. The variety of its 
courses encourages each type of mind, 
inspires interest and promotes growth. 
In addition, it has a general educa- 
tional value, because hand work, with 
its vocational slant and the corre- 
lated academic work, appeals to the 



motor-minded student who has failed 
to be aroused by a full day's program 
of the latter." 

Departments Interdependent 
As the largest textile high school in 
the worlds comprising an enrollment 
of 5,400 students, it offers a practical 
course in every division of the indus- 
try and a special course for approxi- 
mately 10 per cent of the student body 
which enters technical colleges every 
year. Classroom instruction in mar- 
keting, buying and selling, advertising, 
engineering, dyeing, fabric design, in- 
terior decoration, costume and wear- 
ing apparel is supplemented with the 
practical appliance of the theories 
taught. 

A natural interdependence exists be- 
tweenfthe various departments, sf that 
one represents a single unit of the 
textile industry. The classes in fabric 
design, for example, work out the pat- 
terns they believe suitable to ; meet 
the needs of a certain type of material 
and pass them on to be printed or 
woven into a finished product. 

From all parts of the world collec- 
tions of fabrics have been made and 
presented to the school's museum. 
The Cotton Converters' Association and 
the Silk Association of America have 
presented every design of cotton and 
silk ever made. One thousand different 
types of laces, both hand and machine 
made, are mounted in glass frames, and 
the collection also includes unusual 
dyed fabrics from many different 
lands. Cotton, mulberry and artificial 
silk cloths and an elephant cover, 
hand-loomed at the Gandhi School at 



Farrukhabad, were given to the school 
by Gandhi, and Mussolini is preparing 
a complete collection of Italian fabrics 
which he will present as soon p* U. *r 
ready. 

Reference Material Ai aiiahU 

The public as well as the textile 
trade is free to use the available ref- 
erence material in this "Guild Hall" 
museum at any time. Practically every 
textile manufacturer in the city at one 
time or another has made use of its 
exhaustive files in determining the 
type, style and history of various 
fabrics and to make sample compari- 
J sons, Dr. Dooley explained. 

In response to the demands of the 
textile manufacturers and trade asso- 
ciations, the Textile High School was 
established twelve years ago with 
eighty-four students in an unused ele- 
mentary school building at 124 West 
Thirteenth Street. The new Textile 
High School, designed with the most 
modern and complete equipment avail- 
able, is the fourth building of the 
group, which now houses 4,800 day 
students and 1,000 evening sludenU. 



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Doctor's Skill at Weaving < 
Yields Mt. Holyoke $5000 



SOUTH HADLEY, Jan. 13 (AP) 
—A $5000 medical fellowship, funds 
for which were earned by the 
weaving skill of Dr. Mary P. Dole, 
an alumna, was established today 
at Mount Holyoke College. 

Dr. Dole, a Shelburne Palls re- 
tired physician, quit her practice 
several years ago to assist a patient 
with falling eyesight and soon be- 
came expert with the loom, weav- 
ing coverlets and dresses. 

The fellowship fund Is to be used 
for research by Mount Holyoke 
students, preferably graduates who 
already have received the degree 
of doctor of medicine. 






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Dyes for Handicrafts 

Colors Found in Pantry, Back Yard, or Woods 
Are Used on Yarns for Handloom Weaving 

By JUSTINE LEWIS 

Packed away for another year are the Easter egg colorings 
of every well run household. But hiding in your own back yard 
may be the ingredients of homemade dyes to be brewed and 
blended for use in handicraft creations. An old hand at ferreting 
out all the colors of the rainbow from surprisingly convenient 
sources is Miss Kate Van Cleve of Brookline. After discovering 
them anywhere from the trunk 



Of the old apple tree to walnut Light be expected. Lily of the 
hulls left over from yesterday's valley i eaV es, soon to make their 



salad, she puts the colors to use 
in her hand loom weaving. 

Before telling a group of Cam- 
bridge weavers recently about 
the ins and outs of dyeing in the 
home, Miss VanCleve took the 
craft enthusiasts to a large com- 
mercial yarn dye works in Ja- 
maica Plain. Then, with the 
large scale processes clear in 
their minds, she showed the 
group, in her own studio, about 
corresponding processes used by 
our grandmothers. 

On expedition into the pantry, 
two foodstuffs, miles apart on the 
menu plan, provide the first col- 
oring ingredients for the group's 
observation. They are onion 
skins, whose rich golden yellow 
dye is no surprise to veteran egg- 
decorators, and tea leaves, which 
can be brewed to give off a rose- 
tan coloring, beautifully soft in 
hue. 

Go out in the garden, if it 
harbors a few familiar trees, and 
in their shade are hiding several 
more cachets of color. Norway 
maple bark is another source of 
rose-tan, apple bark makes still 
another tan, a dark yellow one. 
Yellow-green, cheerfully spring- 
like and warm, is concocted from 
peach tree leaves, while the wal- 
nut hull's brown dye is rich and 
dark. 

Among the Flowers 

Flowers, in themselves so color- 
ful, produce fewer dye hues than 



appearance, make light green; 
burnt orange is brewed from 
coreopsis, and orange yellow 
from dahlias, despite the wide 
range of their blossom's colors. 
Autumn's equally colorful zennias 
give, surprisingly, only a dark, 
greenish yellow. 

Leaving the garden for a walk 
in the woods, a seeker for dyes 
doesn't have far to look. There 
is dark plum brown from dog 
wood, dark tan yellow from the 
bark of yellow birch, and yellow- 
brown from golden-rod. Bright 
red sumac berries, by some magic 
alchemy, afford a dye that is any- 
where from dark gray to black. 
Conversely, stem lichens give 
various colorings all the way 
from sun yellow through brown- 
red and purple. 

American Indian's Red 

Our American Indians discov- 
ered most of these colorings for 
themselves, using them on yarn 
for their blankets and rugs. But 
there was something missing in 
their pallet. That was bright red, 
which they loved. Finding it 
very hard to get, they eyed such 
brilliant cloth of the white men 
with covetous glances. Finally 
ingenuity came to the fore. They 
raveled out any red cloth they 
could get hold of and used that 
wool, or else used that material 
to dye their own wool. The red 
in the old Indian blankets was 
obtained in this way from cloth. 



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HOMESTEAD NOTES 

Published by RALPH BORSODI and ASSOCIATES 
from the SCHOOL of LIVING at Suffern, N. Y. 



Nov., and Dec, 1935 £ ^ ^ 



££&£>& 



Number 24 



A Tax Program 



A TAX PLATFORM 

If America is ever again to be a land of 
free, self-sufficient, home owning families, then 
the present oppressive system of taxing the 
home owners must be ended. 

For at present we are taxing to death the 
home owner and the farm owner for the ben- 
efit of industry and of big cities. 



4. All other lands, including city land, to be 
taxed on the value of the unimproved land 
only; all buildings to be free of present realty 
taxes. 

5. Protective tariffs and sales taxes to be 
abolished within ten years by reducing them 
at the rate of not less than 10 per cent per 
year. 



The power to tax, said the first Chief Jus- 
tice of the Supreme court of the United 
States, is the power to destroy. 

a 

If the power to tax is the power to destroy, 
then the power to untax is the power to cre- 
ate — or at least recreate what has in the past 
been destroyed. 

Untaxing the American home is the surest 
way in which the Congress and the Stales can 
make this country a nation of prosperous home 
owners again. 

Here is a tax program which we believe fits 
the homestead and country life movement — 
and which gives individual human beings a 
chance to protect themselves against exploi- 
tation by industry and by business corporations. 

1 . All taxes on homesteads (homes and not 
to exceed 10 acres immediately surrounding 
the building) to be abolished. 

2. Farm land, pasture, and wood lots to be 
taxable only up to 1 per cent of their value 
unimproved. 

3. Coal, oil and mineral lands to be taxed on 
a royalty basis on production, and when not 
used, on their full value as unimproved min- 
eral land. 



The principal work of the State and Fed- 
eral governments is the protection and promo- 
tion of industry. At present millions and 
billions are being spent by the government to 
produce industrial recovery and to support 
those unemployed by industry. 

Why should the farmers and home owners 
of the counry be taxed for the benefit of 
industry? 

Why shouldn't industry pay for the expenses 
which industry creates? 

A simple amendment to the Constitution 
of the United States might well be the first step 
in cattying out this tax program. We pro- 
pose the following as the 2 2d Amendment: 

"The private ownership of a home and home- 
stead being essential to the security, progress, 
and culture of the people, no tax of any kind 
shall be levied by the Congress or any state, 
county or municipality on any homestead. A 
homestead, within the meaning of this a- 
mendment, shall consist of a privately owned, 
owner occupied, one family residence and the 
land not exceeding 10 acres, immediately sur- 
rounding it." 




HOUSING 

AThe papers are full of stories about housing 
plans. Recently, when the first government 
built houses were completed in New York City, 
elaborate ceremonies marked the event, and it 
was hailed as a great achievement. 

Yet when we examine this project and when 
we study the housing plans about which we 
hear so much, what we find is that city 
apartments are involved the construction of 
which is made possible by a government subsidy. 
And once again we find ourselves on hu- 
manitarian grounds confronted by a program of 
taxing the whole country for the benefit of 
people who live in cities and who own aty 
land. 

Why should a farmer in Iowa pay tariff and 
sales taxes to the Federal government, in order 
to help pay the rent of people living in New 
York City? 

Why should a home-owner who lives in a 
suburb around New York and who is paying 
the full cost of building his own home, be 
taxed however indirectly for the benefit of 
those who pay rent in New York City? 

We wonder whether anybody can make a 
logical apology for this kind of injustice . 

SUB-MAN 

^The curse of industrialism is the fact that 
it reduces man to the level of automatons. It 
undermines their spiritual, moral and phys- 
ical life, and reduces them to what R. Austin 
Freeman calls "sub-man" in his book "Social 
Decay and Regeneration." 

"Compared with the African negro," he says, 
"the British sub-man is in several respects 
markedly inferior. He tends to be dull: he is 
usually quite helpless and unhandy; he has as 
a rule, no skill or knowledge of handicraft, or 
indeed knowledge of any kind. The negro, on 
the contrary, is usually sprightly and humor- 
ous. He is generally well-informed as to the 
flora and fauna of his region, and nearly al- 
ways knows the principal constellations. He 
las some traditional knowledge of religion, 
myths and folklore, and some acquaintance 
ith music. He is handy and self-helpful; he 



can usually build a house, thatch a roof, ob- 
tain and prepare food, make a fire without 
matches, spin yarn, and can often weave cot- 
ton and make and mend simple implements. 
Physically he is robust, active, hardy and en- 
ergetic." Yet in a boot factory there is not 
a man who can make a pair of boots, while 
the factory hands are, as a rule of very poor 
physique: they are too small and stunted, 
with bad teeth, and suffer much from pul- 
monary and digestive troubles. Such are the 
fruits of progress to which we conveniently 
turned a blind eye so long as there was monev 
in it. 

••10 PER CENT OF THE LAND—" 

£Break the monopoly in land and there is 
eradicated one of the major evils of our pres- 
ent economic institutions. This has been a 
platform of "Homestead Notes." We have 
advocated that if 25 per cent of the land were 
freed our citizenry would be also freed from 
the Frankenstein of the factory system. Dr. 
Franz Oppenheimer, eminent German Sociolo- 
gist and economist, believes that if only 10 per 
cent of the land were free for homesteading, 
stability would replace economic crises and the 
exploitation of labor disappear. 

At a recent dinner sponsored by such nota- 
bles as Professor Albert Einstein, Felix Frank- 
furter, Ludwig Lewisohn, and Professor Harry 
A. Overstreet, Dr. Oppenheimer addressed the 
following significant remarks: 

"I am one who sees the way out. All I ask 
is for that way to be noticed. Not enough 
attention has been paid to it, in spite of the 
fact that I am one of the acknowledged the- 
orists of my time. 

"There is no real conflict between commu- 
nism and capitalism when they are examined 
logically. The conflict rests on a premise ac- 
cepted by both sides which is incorrect. Both 
sides admit that free competition is associated 
with great evils. The capitalist says these 
evils are unavoidable. The communist says 
they are unbearable. 

"Both are in the same error, because I hold 
that free competition is not associated with 
evils. To blame it is wrong. I offer the novel 



HOMESTEAD NOTES 



contention that we have not had free competi- 
tion in 6000 years. 

"Now I will show you why we have not had 
free competition. Where there is any impor- 
tant monopoly, there is no free competition. 
One excludes the other. Yet the monopoly of 
the land is one of the most striking features 
of our economy. 

"A minority is in possesion of the land while 
the majority has little or none. The landless 
majority must depend on the others, and that 
is a characteristic of monopoly. There may be 
competition among the monopolists, but that 
is not free competition. The task of our time 
is, therefore, not to abolish competition but to 
free it by abolishing the monopoly of the land. 

"History gives evidence that capitalism is 
lodged in the land monopoly. Wherever a pio- 
neer can get to free land the laborer has dis- 
appeared from hire and put land to his own 
support. Take examples in the history of 
America. It was so in Colonial American days, 
and it was still so until the open lands of the 
West were enclosed. 

"Other theorists have been somewhat aware 
of the land monopoly as the root of economic 
and sociologic evils, but their schemes of na- 
tionalization have been too ambitious. They 
could never be imposed against the opposition 
of people who own small pieces of land. 

"But I do not believe it is necessary to na- 
tionalize the entire land. To take a fortress, you 
make only a breach in the wall; you do not 
find it necessary to take down the entire wall. 

"To correct all the present economic difficul- 
ties I believe, as a result of more than forty 
years of thinking, we have only to take 10 per 
cent of the land. It would be properly paid 
for by the nation and redistributed on easy 
terms among those who would like to return to 
the soil. The equilibrium would return. 

"The supply of laborers would diminish and 
wages of those who remained as laborers would 
rise. Surplus production, crises and the exploi- 
tation of labor would disappear. 

"There is a serfdom of the land as well as of 
mankind. Revolutions of the past have only 
liberated man. We must now liberate the land." 



OUR FIRST HOMESTEAD PROJECT 



4siThe following questions which we are asked 
over and over again, are here answered as 
briefly as possible. Furl her information will be 
gladly furnished. A cordial invitation to visit 
the project is extended to all those interested. 

What is the School of Living? 

The School is an institution organized in 
1934 to help those interested in country life 
and homesteading. It is managed by a board 
of nine trustees. Ralph Borsodi is Director. 
It aims to educate leaders a-d furnish guidance 
to the hundreds of families who are asking: 
"How can I and my family move from the city, 
successfully build our home, and supplement our 
cash income by production for our own use?" 

What is the Homestead Project which the 
School is developing? 

Through a subsidiary corporation, The 
Independence Foundation. Inc., land has been 
acquired and provision made for the co-oper- 
ative financing of a model homestead commu- 
nity. Trie project is in no way connected 
with the Federal government. 

Where is the Project located ? 

Near Suffern N. Y., about 25 miles from 
the entrance to the Washington Bridge. Suffern 
is a community center on the Erie R. R. 
The project is located on U. S. route 202; 
a new concrete highway. It is only an hour's 
drive by automobile to New York. 

What is the land like? 

It consists of a 40 acre tract of rolling con- 
tours, in the foothills of the Ramapo Mountains, 
crossed by the Mahwah River. Ten acres have 
been reserved for a natural park, for swimming, 
for pastures and for roadways. 

The balance has been divided into one to 
three acre homesteads. The parcels are ideal 
for building sites. The soil, which has been 
analyzed by the county Farm Bureau agent, is 
admirably suited for homestead gardening. 



HOMESTEAD NOTES 



(Continued from preceeding page) 

What type of homes are built ? 

Stone houses, individually designed, with all 
modern improvements, varying in cost from 
$2,500.00 to $6,500.00. While plans of any ar- 
chitect may be used (subject to approval), the 
procedure recommended is to have the School's 
instuctor in building and architecture work out 
the designs. In this manner the plans of the 
house will be coordinated with instruction in 
homestead management, budget analysis, gar- 
dening, etc.,— and in no case will exceed the 
financial resources of the homesteader. 

How may land be secured? 

The land is available on a non-profit basis - 
to acceptable applicants and no investment 
need be made in it. Permanent leaseholds are 
furnished upon the payment of an annual 
ground rent, which is divided into monthly 
installments. The ground rent payments at 
present vary from $3.34 to $6.67 per month 
per one plot, and are determined from year 
to year on the basis of taxes levied upon the 
property, cost of roadways, and community 
improvements. 

THE INDEPENDENCE 
FOUNDATION 

£"For the purpose of establishing a home- 
stead community on a plot of approximately 
forty acres of land, located on the Haverstraw 
Road near Suffern in the County of Rockland, 
and is engaged in the construction of residen- 
ces, outbuildings, and other improvements 
necessary for the operation of homesteads." 

So reads the charter granted by the State 
of New York to the Independence Foundation 
on June 5, 1935. Six months have passed and 
it is with some feeling of satisfaction that we 
review the results of an eventful summer and 
fall. 

Upon entering the grounds we travel on a 
road which last spring was undeveloped farm 
land, and past the neat little one room shack 
which hasn't as yet been officially named, but 
serves as land office for architect and engineer 
in addition to general information bureau. The 



upgrade brings us to the site of the future 
home of the School of Living, where foundation 
trenches have been dug and excavation made 
for furnace room and root cellar. 

On the left appears the charming Marquart 
Homestead, a five room residence built of na- 
tive fieldstone and equipped with modern do- 
mestic machinery. The road forms a turn as 
we come to the sand and gravel pit where over 
400 tons of material for roads and buildings 
were extracted in a few short months. 

A homestead in the process of construction 
is seen as we reach the end of the new road, 
and work on this structure will continue dur- 
ing the winter months. Upon completion the 
Henry Shipherd family will begin its career 
in modern homesteading. 

These are the tangible results that have 
evolved after months of careful planning and 
continuous effort. More important is the fact that 
the Independence Foundation is an established 
organization capable of moving under its own 
power. The story of the problems involved in 
creating a sound financial and operating basis 
would fill many issues of "Homestead Notes" 
but they were, it seems, inevitable in launching 
a project of this character. 

A welcome addition to our staff of experts is 
Mr.W.S. Fitz Randolph, architect and builder, 
who will assist in directing the project. At this 
writing six families have signed contracts and 
plans are being formulated for construction to 
begin early next spring. THE HOMESTEAD 
MOVEMENT MARCHES ON. 



NOTES FROM THE SCHOOL OF 
LIVING 

^Behind the scenes at the School of Living 
the Shipherd chicken coop is approaching 
completion. The goats have been turned loose 
and have consequently bestowed their capri- 
cious attention as never before on the cabbages. 
The harvest has been gathered in— a bit too 
late for the tomatoes; the shed roof is covered 
with ripe ears drying for coin meal, and baskets 
of turnips crowd the squash and pumpkins, 
while goats and babies revel in the apples — 
until a bee does likewise. 



HOMESTEAD NOTES 



The enterprising Service Exchange which is 
advertising on our bulletin board to the effect 
that bathing the baby (or dishes) will pay for 
a haircut reports business somewhat dull; total 
haircuts administered two and one-half, of 
which one was to the baby himself. 

Progress of the baby: he has doubled his vocab- 
ulary in the quarter (can now say Bye as well 
as Bang); has been promoted from the top of 
the washing machine to the top of the kitchen 
table for meals, and there feeds himself without 
supervision; not to mention that first haircut. 

The School has acquired a concert grand piano 
which is in constant operation by its owner, 
Herbert Harvey, and John Maxwell, our guest 
from Rochester. The fiddles of the Assistant 
Director and Miss Isabella Macfarland, accom- 
panied on the piano by Mrs. George Macrum, 
have given us some most delightful music. 
Mrs. Macrum has been visiting us often from her 
home in Sloatsburg during the current exhibi- 
tion of her husband's paintings at: the School; 
she has for some time been accompanying the 
dancing of the Saturday evening group, adding 
immeasurably to everyone's enjoyment. 

The George Macrum exhibition of paintings, 
water-colors and drawings has covered the walls 
of the School for two weeks with pictures of 
the hill towns both of Rockland County and 
of southern France, snow and marine scenes, 
and gay flowers from the Macrum's own garden. 
Mr. Macrum enjoys his work; he has also tak- 
en thought as to how others may be enabled 
to enjoy it, not only at exhibitions, but in their 
homes. The prices of his pictures are therefore 
within reach of most of the people who like 
them; he has sold a number on the installment 
plan, and "has found this as practicable for art 
as for iceboxes."' We shall miss his visits as much 
as the pictures. Both the opening and closing 
of the exhibition were marked by teas at which 
friends of the artist and friends of the School 
met on the common grounds of appreciation of 
Mr. Macrum's fine showing of pictures. 

The School's parking space has exhibited a 
variety of license plates this fall — the count on 
one day represented N. Y., N. J., Pennsylvania, 
Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Florida. And 
the interests of our visitors have been as varied 
— from homesteading on a large scale to handi- 



craft development in a Florida town; from the 
Catholic point of view, or from music as a way 
of life, to the teachings of Lao Tse — all ming- 
ling with the School of Living's way of home- 
steading. 



SCHOOL GOATS HAVE TRUE 
HOMESTEADING SPIRIT 

^Isadora Duncan and Queen are now happy 
together despite unequal social footing. 

Last spring, when Earl Gordon brought the 
two Swiss milk goats to the School of Living, 
visitors and students whose knowledge of these 
highly sensitive animals had been limited to 
the Sunday comic sheets, were surprised to see 
a goat actually shed tears of grief. Moreover, 
the myth of the tin can eating and fender 
nibbling beast was exploded. 

The notion that a goat will consume all kinds 
of assorted bric-a-brac and rubbish was no 
doubt started when city dump heaps came into 
vogue and it was a common sight to see a goat 
perched on a pile of refuse, nibbling the paper 
wrappers from a tin can. 

Although Isadora (named for the great expo- 
nent of classic dancing) is a blooded Toggen- 
burg of proud lineage, she lives in perfect har- 
mony with her less aristocratic companion 
Queen, a grade goat. Both are excellent pro- 
ducers and together average about 3 quarts 
of milk per day. 

When first taken from the goat farm at 
Wanaque, N. J. our two pets were sorely dis- 
tressed at being separated from their former 
companions and for several days bleated con- 
tinually shedding large watery tears of sorrow. 
However, they are now completely at home 
and besides producing the cream for our coffee 
serve as lawn mowers and fertilizing agents. 

Children especially enjoy the evening milking 
process, and the sight of Isadora, her four 
dainty feet resting on a small box placed on 
the back porch, gazing placidly into the kitchen 
window while being milked, is one to be 
remembered. 



HOMESTEAD NOTES 



I MADE IT MYSELF 

ft In my mind, the words "loom" and 
"weaving" have always been vaguely connected 
with the thought of an Indian sitting cross- 
legged on the sun-baked soil laboriously thread- 
ing bright colors in a crude stringed frame. 
The words "warp" and "woof" meant threads 
to me but I have never been quite sure which 
thread went which way. It really did not seem 
to matter. 

Recently I was asked if I would like to 
learn to weave. The idea rather startled me 
(with my mental picture of an Indian) but I 
thought that it wouldn't hurt me to try, there- 
fore one evening we drove to the School of Liv- 
ing for a first lesson. 

The loom room had a strange effect on me. 
I was told that the beautiful window draperies 
were actually made on a loom by an individu- 
al and that it took only about a day to weave 
the necessary eight yards; I was shown lengths 
of fine cloth, material that would make smart 
suits either for a man or woman; I saw a num- 
ber of colorful blankets and rugs (such as an 
Indian might have woven) and then I saw del- 
icate linen towels, tablecloths and scarves. I 
could scarcely believe that they had been 
made by hand but I was reliably assured of the 
fact. 

The room was filled with an array of ma- 
chinery I had never before seen, that when iden- 
tified turned out to be four looms, two alike 
and two of larger sizes. The use of the "flying" 
shuttle (a phrase that amused me until I saw it 
in use, then I understood the term), the foot 
pedals, the levers on the warp beam and cloth 
beam were duly explained to me. I also learned 
that the warp is wound length-wise on the 
loom, while the woof is the yarn woven across— 
something I never quite knew before seeing the 
process of weaving them together. 

And I wove a rug. Not a perfect rug to be 
sure, but I myself, with a great deal of amateur 
banging on the loom, made a sturdy article of 
blue and brown cotton threads. It was a rug. 

During learning the motions of shuttle and 



pedal I watched the material grow into definite 
form beneath my hand, something that filled 
me with a new sensation — the pleasure of cre- 
ation. I have never made anything before; it 
never occured to me to want to make anything. 
And if anyone had told me prior to this experience 
that a rug 36 inches long could be made in less 
than two hours for less than two dollars, I 
am certain I would have scoffed at the idea. 
So, brimming with enthusiasm and not a little 
pleased with myself, I came home that same 
evening with my rug under my arm. 

Several days later I went again to the School 
to experiment with linen weaving. The linen 
yarn is much smaller than the heavy cotton 
used for rugs, and one must take greater care 
with the selvages to keep them even. As I 
worked, the same creative pleasure filled me — 
mixed with an awe that I was actually making 
linen. I was told that I could weave in any 
colors I wished, that the design depended solely 
upon the weaver. That merely heightened my 
interest. It took me three hours to weave a 
bureau scarf 42 inches long with blue, yellow 
and green border, and the total cost of the 
linen yarn was 47 cents. 

Other than the fact that during my brief 
weaving experience I have become an enthusiast, 
and plan to make all sorts of draperies, materi- 
als, blankets and linen articles, it seems to me that 
the most important thing is this awakening, 
creative interest in me. Like everyone else, I 
have been accustomed to buying the cloths I 
needed, always with the thought, "are they 
pure linen? — is that pure wool?" By weaving 
I can be certain of quality; of the actual price; 
and how much more personal an article becomes 
when one can say, "I made it myself!" 

M. S. 

The Mail Bag 

ft Wanted: A couple to share on a homestead 
adventure. 

"Do you know of any couple that might be 
interested in some such venture? Two kinds 
of stability would be needed: financial in at least 



HOMESTEAD NOTES 



a moderate degree; emotion 100 per cent. 

"Trusting that everything is going well with 
you and with whatever you count important." 
— D. K. 

ft"I have read 'The Flight from the City' 
and am now reading 'This Ugly Civilization.' 
I agree with you in everything you say, and 
am particularly struck with what you say in 
regard to the possibility of practically rees- 
tablishing the conditions of 150 to 200 years 
age when every family was pract ically self-sus- 
taining. I have long believed that we were 
being forced in this direction for the simple 
reason that mass production does not give us 
satisfactory quality and the profit system makes 
commodities expensive beyond what the income 
of the people can meet. I have long believed 
that through methods of this kind, and through 
cooperation we can solve many problems in a 
way which will create a real democracy, and 
do these things in a better way than seems to 
be offered by socialism, communism and surely 
better than through dictatorship. You are 
covering a vital field and I hope that this 
letter will at least encourage you, because I 
assume that you meet with some criticism." 
— E.T.H. 

Book Notes 

ftMODERN HOUSING. By Catherine Bauer. 
Houghton Mifflin Company. 200 Illustrations. 
No more powerful description of the wretched 
housing conditions accompanying the growth 
of large industrial cities could be written than 
found in "Modern Housing." In addition 
Miss Bauer has made a valuable study of 
post-war housing projects built by European 
governments. Unfortunately the author is not 
a competent economist and leaves much to be 
desired in her treatment of land economics 
and housing capitalization. Leaning heavily on 
German and English labor movement theorists 
for her interpretation and history of housing 
reform, she completely overlooks such an im- 
portant thinker as Henry George. "Progress 
and Poverty" and not "Das Kapital" furnishes 
light upon the economics of housing and would 
prevent Miss Bauer from inferring that the 
height of the tenement makes the land dear 



rather than an illogical taxing system. 

The author concludes that the capitalist sys- 
tem is illogical and the housing problem insolu- 
ble in a capitalist society such as ours. We 
agree that the price of land and the interest 
on housing funds are insurmountable difficul- 
ties for any national solution of the housing 
problems. Catherine Bauer finds a selfish group 
of men, whom she calls capitalists, defeating 
themselves and the masses through the stupid 
handling of the housing problem. She favors 
replacing them with another group of men, 
bureaucrats, who, presumably will act more in- 
telligently. Thus far our own bureaucrats have 
failed to solve the housing problem. They have 
built a few houses but only with subsidies col 
lected from the nation as a whole. Perhaps 
Miss Bauer's volume ten years from now on 
the Russian solution of the housing problem 
will prove that Russian bureaucrats can do 
what American bureaucrats admit they can't. 

As for solving the housing problem by 
building individual houses and also by 
homesteading Miss Bauer simply dismisses 
the idea as a mere plan for creating a per- 
manent peasentry. Indeed, it is surprising that 
the author considers country living as a possi 
bility at all. Like most of our urban intellect- 
uals she suffers from the myopia of thinking 
only in terms of an urban civilization. All her 
minimum standards for modern housing in re- 
gard to decency, health, amenity, safety, com- 
fort and convenience can be more easily supplied 
by placing one home on an acre of land instead 
of piling dozens of them one on top of another 
in apartment houses. Our own Homestead 
Project which is located within the metropol- 
itan zone of New York City, greatly exceeds 
these minimum standards with the single excep- 
tion of the unreasonable requirement that work 
be located within thirty minutes of residence. 

As for the cheap gibe about peasentry; that 
is the stock in trade of those who wish to 
escape from thinking about the problem of 
how people can live closer to nature and be 
less dependent upon modern industrialism. 

"Modern Housing" Is an excellent encyclo- 
pedia on the much neglected problem of housing 
but it is pathetically inadequate on the eco- 
nomic and sociological aspects of the question. 



8 



HOMESTEAD NOTES 



Announcements 



^HOMESTEAD NOTES 

Published monthly by Ralph Borsodi and Asso- 
ciates from their School of Living at Suffern, N. Y. 

Subscription, $1 per year; single copies, 10c. 

Books by Ralph Borsodi: Flight from the City, 
$1; This Ugly Civilization, $3; National Adver- 
tising vs. Prosperity, 50c; The New Accounting, 
50c. 

^SCHOOL OF LIVING 

The School of Living is a residential school 
with daytime and evening sessions arranged 
so that students or apprentices from the neigh- 
borhood may attend and others may commute 
daily or for weekends. Courses are divided 
into two main groups: 

Principles of Living: this is a series of lect- 
ures and discussions of principles of the move- 
ment toward domestic production and home- 
steading. Conducted by Ralph Borsodi, Sunday 
4:00 to 6:00 P .M. The School Forum; every 
other Sunday evening distinguished guest lect- 
urers present some definite point of view re- 
garding current political, economic and social 
questions. 

Practices of Living: Food Production — there 
are three courses in food making: the ag- 
ricultural course; the processing course, and the 
cooking course. 

Agricultural Course; — Soil preparation, home- 
stead gardening, poultry raising and landscap- 
ing by Richard Mihalko, County Agricultural 
Agent, Sunday 2 to 4 P.M. 

Homestead Planning; — Planning your own 
homestead, investment and financing, manage- 
ment and accounting, buying and building, 
production in the shop, studio, loom room, 
kitchen and farmstead, Ralph Borsodi and 
school consultants every Sunday 10:30 to 12:30. 

Domestic Weaving; — Weaving of yard goods 
for suitings, dresses, coats, drapery, bed 
spreads, table and general household in linen, 
cotton and wool. Mr. and Mrs. Earl Gordon, 
Sunday at 2 P. M., by appointment other days. 

Building and Furniture Making and Shop 
Work; — Practical training in shop work and 
the use of tools. A. A* Minner, by appointment. 

Fees; — Registration fee $2.50, instruction pe- 
riods 50 c. per hour; board and room $12.50 
per week; $2.00 per day. Resident apprentices 
are entitled to admission to all courses which 
do not involve individual instruction. 

The School of Living is located at the Kakiat 
Cottage, Spook Rock Road near Suffern, New 
York. Tel: Suffern 1178. 



J^BORSODI-WINBORN DOMESTIC LOOM 

Four harness, six treadle looms, including 
fly shuttle; designed on modern engineering 
principles for greater efficiency and better ap- 
pearance. The looms are modern in beauty 
and symmetry of line. 

36 inch loom $80.00 

42 inch loom $86.00 

48 inch loom $92.00 

56 inch loom $100.00 

Spool Rack, Reel, Bobbin 
Winder and Temple $10.00 

Prices of accessories upon application. Terms 
$10.00 deposit with order, balance sight draft 
attached to bill of lading. Arrangement for 
time payments can be made. 



^HOMESTEAD GRIST MILLS 

These mills have been tried out in our own 
homestead for over two years in grinding 
wheat, corn, oats, soy beans, rice and all sorts 
of grains for flour, feed and for use as cereals. 
Hand Mill $2.50 

Electric Motor Mill $19.85 

Terms: cash with order. 



^HANDWOVEN MATERIALS 

The artists in charge of the Loom Room of 
the School of Living are glad to execute individ- 
ual orders in a variety of designs and fabrics. 
Two of their looms are warped for 28 inch all- 
wool suitings — one in navy blue and one in 
brown, on which a great many interesting 
effects can be obtained with different or match- 
ing weft yarns. The third loom is warped with 
white linen 20 inches wide, and the fourth has a 
blanket warp of natural homespun wool 50 in- 
ches wide. Other widths and materials are 
warped from time to time, such as cottons of 
various weights and colors, for rugs and drap- 
eries. The yarns used are col or- fast; many of 
them are of vegetable-dyed homespun. 

If you cannot visit the School, you may order 
fabrics sent on approval; the weavers will send 
swatches or yarn samples on request . Orders 
can be filled in two or three weeks. A 28 inch 
pure wool suiting in any color you choose costs 
usually $2 per yard. A blanket of long stock 
virgin wool , 50 x 90 inches, in a variety of un- 
usual colors, unique in design, and with hand 
tied fringe, can be had for $10. Rugs of new 
cotton yarn 45 x 80 inches, in rich colorings, 
cost about $5 . (Other sizes may be ordered at 
prices to correspond.) Fringed linen towels (20 
x 36 inches) in natural or white, with colored 
borders, are always on hand at $1 each. 



wKS 
■Si 




cted to 
two of 
nenta- 
pposite 
rderly 

ortet 



roK place ou 

they had a diTel 

'classroom associations. 

A. Rehmus, who was prin- 

1 of the school until he was 

r ade superintendent of Lakewood 

ichools this fall, thought it would 

be a good idea to try a series of 

all-school parties, given at nominal 



The school's new™prn 

rence E. Vredevoe, i 

"The affair certainly got over til 

idea that everyone in the school 

is on an equal footing, and that wel 

can all have a good time together." 



A Book on Weaving 

Written for The Christian Science Monitor 



The Studio Publications, Inc., 
usually does a distinguished job 
in its "How to Do It"- series, and 
the volume "Weaving for Ama- 
teurs" by Helen Coates (Studio 
Publications, London and New 
York, $3.50) is up to its tradition. 
It explains in detail, abundant 
v/ith diagrams and photographs, 
the essentials of weaving, the 
kinds of looms, the various kinds 
of weaving; and takes the reader 
through simple pattern reading, 
into the more complex patterns, 
1 dyeing, spinning, and some hint of 



the romance and history of the 
craft. It is particularly clear pres- 
entation, not a little due to the 
excellent diagrams and the short 
concise explanations. Yet, while 
quite within the grasp of the most 
inexperienced amateur, it has the 
professional artist's touch — most 
unusual in works of this nature. 
The author is a skilled weaver, 
and has spent many years teaching 
the subject to children. A good in- 
vestment for schools, we should 
say; and a delightful addition to 
the home craftsman's personal 
library. 



J 



Crimson End 



[of the Harvard line-up against the 
, the Crimson not only loses a good 
Its best punter as well. 



also praised 
done with the Hai 
Lyal Clark, whom he 
"one of the shyest men he t 
knew." Yesterday the Harvar 
who saw most of the action against 
the Big Green were given a day 
off. "The . kids were up for that 
game, and fully deserved a rest," 
was his comment. 

Seat of Honor 
The big Crimson head coach held 
the seat of honor at the meeting 
because of Harvard's stunning vic- 
tory. Another coach from across 
Charles River way was also given 
a chance to speak, and Jayvee 
Coach Henry Lamar told all he 
knew about Navy. 

"They are large boys with plenty 
of power and speed, and they oper- 
ate with the T formation, spinners, 
short punt, spreads, and single 
! wing, so you can see that we 
| haven't much to do to get ready tor 
Satumay," he said with a smile. 
"Seriously, though, they are the 
best Tiavy team I have ever seen in 
my life, and I have been watching 
Navy Teams ever since I was a kid." 
Den*y Myers of Boston College 



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